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11/37. talc granulomatosis. A differential diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in hiv patients.

    Consumers of adulterated drugs may present with talc-induced interstitial lung disease. A transbronchial biopsy specimen showing granulomas with intracellular talc crystals is necessary to confirm this diagnosis. In patients infected with hiv, such a condition can be indistinguishable at first glance from opportunistic infections or other pulmonary diseases. A case is presented of a seropositive patient whose chest radiographs showed a diffuse interstitial pattern. ( info)

12/37. Bronchocentric granulomatosis with mucus impaction due to bronchogenic carcinoma. An association with clinical relevance.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an unexpected inflammatory process associated with malignancy in the lung and to postulate a new mode of pathogenesis. DESIGN: Retrospective review of surgical pathologic findings. SETTING: Academic hospital pathology department. patients: Four patients, 2 men and 2 women, ranging in age from 45 to 74 years, each of whom had a solitary mass on chest radiographs. INTERVENTIONS: Pulmonary lobectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Histopathologic identification of bronchocentric granulomatosis. RESULTS: Accompanying a bronchogenic carcinoma in each case was a necrotizing chronic granulomatous reaction centered around bronchioles that were plugged with mucus, necrotic detritus from the tumor, lipid, or a combination of these substances. eosinophils were present in small numbers in one case. The pathologic findings characterize bronchocentric granulomatosis. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of bronchocentric granulomatosis in the biopsy of a mass does not exclude the presence of an accompanying bronchogenic carcinoma associated with obstruction of bronchioles. Bronchocentric granulomatosis in some cases may represent an immunologic response to tumor detritus or lipid, as well as to mucus impaction. ( info)

13/37. Isolated endobronchial atypical mycobacterium in a child: a case report and review of the literature.

    Isolated endobronchial lesions caused by mycobacterium avium are rare, especially in the pediatric population. We share the case of a 10-month-old boy who, after 1 week of cough and low-grade fever, had a radiographic examination showing endobronchial obstruction. At bronchoscopy, a granuloma of the left bronchus intermedius was found. Histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Kinyoun Acid Fast stain revealed acid fast bacilli. Cultures were positive for M. avium. Current treatment options and controversies are presented. The roles of antibiotics and steroids in preventing progressive disease are discussed. The need for serial bronchoscopy and the potential benefits of surgical resection are discussed. Isolated endobronchial M. avium infection remains a rare and challenging problem. The paucity of clinical experience, and variation in patient presentation, obligates a high index of suspicion, and frequent follow-up with bronchoscopic examination and pulmonary assessment, for the child diagnosed with isolated endobronchial atypical mycobacterial infection. ( info)

14/37. Pulmonary hyalinising granuloma: a case report and literature review.

    This is a case of a rare lung disease known as pulmonary hyalinising granuloma, which is usually discovered incidentally on chest radiographs and poses diagnostic difficulties but has an excellent prognosis. In this case a 75-year-old man had a 6-year history of undiagnosed, enlarging, bilateral dense apical infiltrates. The patient died from his tobacco smoke-related emphysema, which led to diagnosis of the lesion. At autopsy both lungs showed well-defined apical, hard, grey-white masses covered by a rind of thickened adherent pleura. Histologically, the lesion was composed of dense, haphazard lamellar, keloid-like collagen concentrically arranged around blood vessels with extension into the pleura and perivascular collections of lymphocytes and plasma cells. ( info)

15/37. pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with an atypical granulomatous response in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    We have recently seen a patient who developed pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in the course of treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This case showed uncommon pathological findings with extensive formation of granulomatous lesions. Despite advanced CLL associated with poor B-cell function, she responded well to anti-PCP treatment. In contrast to B-cell function, the T-cell functions were well preserved in vitro, and the numbers of peripheral CD4- and CD8-positive cells were normal, and T-cell functions were normal. These findings suggest that the production of granulomatous lesions to PCP may have been associated with the patients' immune status, and that it may constitute a good indicator in PCP infection in patients with underlying hematological malignancy. ( info)

16/37. Tracheal granulation tissue after percutaneous tracheostomy treated with Nd:Yag laser: three cases.

    Three adult patients who received percutaneous serial dilatational tracheostomy post-cardiac surgery developed histologically confirmed tracheal granulation tissue superior to the point of entry of the tracheostomy tube into the trachea. This tissue significantly occluded the trachea in all patients and, in two, led to serious haemorrhage. Each patient had serial dilatational percutaneous tracheostomy using the Cook/Ciaglia technique. On each patient fibre-optic bronchoscopy confirmed satisfactory position of the guidewire and tracheostomy tube. Nd:Yag laser therapy was applied to areas of tracheal granulation tissue and was also employed to secure haemostasis. In each patient endobronchial Nd:YAG laser therapy successfully cleared the granulation tissue and secured haemostasis. Follow-up bronchoscopy showed no recurrence. Fibre-optic bronchoscopy at the time of tracheal decannulation may identify granulation tissue requiring appropriate referral and intervention. ( info)

17/37. Granulomatous pneumonitis following bone marrow transplantation.

    We describe the rare occurrence of a granulomatous pneumonitis seen in a patient following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Interestingly sarcoidosis was diagnosed in the marrow donor less than a year after donating his bone marrow. ( info)

18/37. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung.

    Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the lung is a neoplasm seen most commonly in the nasopharynx of individuals from south china and taiwan, and is strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. The case of a 62-year-old Chinese man with a rare primary lung T2N1M0 LELC of the left lower lobe is presented. The lesion was further notable because of the presence of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. The patient was treated with surgical resection. After it was determined that the neoplasm was of primary lung origin, adjunctive chemotherapy was initiated. The role of adjunctive chemotherapy in this setting is discussed. ( info)

19/37. Increased serum thymidine kinase activity in acute sarcoidosis.

    This is the first case report of acute sarcoidosis with increased serum thymidine kinase (TK) activity. A 43-year-old male presented fever, swelling of parotid glands, lymphadenopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. sarcoidosis was pathologically diagnosed by lung and parotid gland biopsy. His serum TK, which was increased to 11.2 U/l at diagnosis (normal <5 U/l), normalized after glucocorticoid therapy. serum TK has been considered as a good marker of the proliferative activity of various types of neoplasms. Its rise in sarcoidosis has, however, not been described. Because acute sarcoidosis sometimes resembles malignant lymphoma, the possible rise of serum TK in sarcoidosis may be worthy of note. ( info)

20/37. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma with hydronephrosis.

    A 49-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of a bilateral mass shadow in his chest x-ray film. No definitive diagnosis was established either by brushing cytology or biopsy through bronchoscopy. No malignancies were suggested by general work-up. Both masses were surgically removed, and were diagnosed as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG). Fifteen months later, low grade fever continued and the renal function decreased. Laboratory examinations revealed bilateral hydronephrosis with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. The findings of abdominal CT and urography were compatible with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Steroid treatment completely reversed the initial abnormality in laboratory data and the symptoms disappeared. ( info)
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