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11/75. A case of pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer following an 18-year disease-free interval that responded to tamoxifen treatment.

    A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with an abnormal shadow on chest roentgenogram. She had undergone a radical mastectomy for right breast cancer 18 years previously. Since pleural dissemination was noted at the time of thoracotomy, only tumor biopsy was performed. Although a decisive diagnosis could not be obtained histologically, the tumor resembled breast cancer and the estrogen receptor status was positive. She underwent post-operative chemotherapy and tamoxifen treatment. After tamoxifen treatment, complete response was observed. The patient is now doing well without recurrence about 10 years after thoracotomy. Based on the clinical course, we obtained both a definitive diagnosis and complete remission. ( info)

12/75. Prostate cancer in klinefelter syndrome during hormonal replacement therapy.

    Prostate cancer detection is a rare occurrence in patients with klinefelter syndrome, in whom chronically low circulating androgen levels are common findings. Administration of exogenous testosterone has increasingly been used to treat young adolescents diagnosed with klinefelter syndrome and documented androgen deficiency. Although testosterone replacement in adult patients has been associated with prostatic enlargement, it remains unknown whether chronic supplementation of exogenous testosterone to pubescent males with hypogonadism results in early prostate carcinogenesis. We report a first case of prostate cancer in a patient with klinefelter syndrome who had undergone long-term testosterone replacement therapy since childhood for chronically depressed levels of testosterone. ( info)

13/75. Capecitabine as salvage therapy for a breast cancer patient with extensive liver metastases and associated impairment of liver function.

    BACKGROUND: breast cancer metastasizing to the liver with presence of a parenchymatous icterus presents a therapeutic dilemma. Treatment-related toxicity can be unpredictable due to altered drug clearance, and bilirubin exceeding 5,0 mg/dl is generally considered an absolute contraindication for the administration of cytotoxic agents. The pharmacokinetics of capecitabine--an active oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug for the treatment of advanced breast cancer--are not affected in patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction, but there are no data available for patients with severe hyperbilirubinemia. PATIENT AND methods: We herein report the case of a female patient with advanced breast cancer with predominant liver metastases and severe hyperbilirubinemia (12 mg/dl). The patient received oral capecitabine at a dose of 2,500 mg/m2/day in 2 divided doses for 2 weeks, followed by 1 week rest. RESULTS: Several assessments of liver function parameters including serum bilirubin showed a decrease to normal values within 2.5 months. After 7 courses of treatment, a partial remission was confirmed by CT scan. Treatment with capecitabine was well tolerated with grade 2 hand-and-foot syndrome and mild nausea being the only side effects. CONCLUSION: This case report suggests that capecitabine can be safely administered without dose adjustment in patients with extensive liver metastases and hepatic dysfunction. ( info)

14/75. Screening-detected breast cancer in a man with BRCA2 mutation: case report.

    Current indications for breast cancer screening in the male population are lacking, although family history of breast cancer may be such an indication. The authors describe a man with a history of clinically diagnosed right breast cancer who subsequently tested positive for the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 and received a diagnosis of mammographically detected left breast cancer at screening. The authors discuss the clinical implications of this approach to detecting male breast cancer. ( info)

15/75. The biological basis for the use of an anti-androgen and a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor in the treatment of recurrent prostate cancer: Case report and review.

    Although many prostate cancer cases relapse to a hormone-insensitive state, endocrine therapy involving androgen depletion by orchiectomy or by treatment with LHRH-analogue as well as blockade of the androgen receptor (AR) with anti-androgens remains a primary treatment option. quality of life (QOL) however, is a prime consideration of men choosing such an approach. In this report we discuss a synergistic combination of 150-mg bicaltumide (Casodex) and 5 mg finasteride (Proscar) in the treatment of a 69-year-old patient with a relapsed (biochemical failure) Gleason score 7 prostate cancer, initially treated with external beam radiation therapy. A successful clinical outcome as evidenced by undetectable serum PSA, bone scan density and overall general well-being was accomplished with minimal side effects. Experiments using an established hormone-dependent prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) showed that the combination of bicaltumide-finasteride at the same ratio as used clinically, produced synergistic effects on the inhibition of cell proliferation and AR expression/phosphorylation. A more complete inactivation of the AR on this regimen may have had the effect of constraining the ability of the AR to mutate, and/or diminishing the ability of androgen independent clones to evolve. Thus, passage to androgen independence may have been slowed or arrested. ( info)

16/75. Selecting adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer.

    This year alone, more than 215,000 women in the united states will be diagnosed with, and over 40,000 will die from, invasive breast cancer. Recently, mortality from female breast cancer has declined despite an increase in its incidence. This decline corresponds with improved screening for prompt tumor detection, and advances in the treatment of early disease. Of these, endocrine therapy has played a prominent role. For women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and/or progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancers, endocrine therapy has proven to be a major component of adjuvant therapy, but it is not effective in women whose breast cancers lack ERs and PRs. The selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen has been well established as safe and effective in the adjuvant care of both pre- and postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer. For premenopausal women, ovarian suppression is an important option to be considered. Additionally, the aromatase inhibitors have recently demonstrated utility in postmenopausal women. The ideal sequencing of treatment with tamoxifen and/or an aromatase inhibitor is the subject of several ongoing studies. Factors involved in selecting an appropriate endocrine regimen have grown considerably over the past decade. It is becoming more important for those caring for women with breast cancer to fully understand the available endocrine treatment options and the prognostic and predictive factors available to help select the most appropriate treatment. The goal of this article is to assist clinicians in making decisions regarding adjuvant hormonal therapy and to provide information regarding available clinical trials. To achieve this, the therapeutic options for hormonal therapy will be reviewed, as will prognostic and predictive factors used in making decisions. Finally, four cases illustrating these difficult decisions will be discussed, with recommendations for treatment. ( info)

17/75. Uterine-like mass with features of an extrauterine adenomyoma presenting 22 years after total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: a case report and review of the literature.

    adenomyoma is a benign tumor composed of smooth muscle and benign endometrium. These tumors typically originate within the uterus. An extrauterine adenomyoma is a rare entity. We report a uterine-like mass consistent with an extrauterine adenomyoma presenting 22 years following a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The mass was pear-shaped with uterine-type smooth muscle and a cavity lined by functional endometrial glands and stroma. To our knowledge, only 4 other cases of an extrauterine uterine-like mass are reported in the literature. Three involved the ovary, while one was located adjacent to the broad ligament with normal pelvic organs. Although none of these other uterus-like masses were described as adenomyomas with uterine-like features, the histologic findings are strikingly similar. An understanding of the mullerian system suggests that either an embryologic malformation or a differential multipotentiality existing in the subcoelomic tissues in response to hormonal stimulation results in a supernumerary mullerian structure like a uterus, as observed in this case. The presence of endometrial glands and stroma in the mass confirms that the tissues in this mass are hormonally responsive. It is most likely that this uterine-like mass arose from the tissues of the secondary mullerian system in response to estrogenic stimulation. ( info)

18/75. Orbital metastasis from prostate cancer: an atypical case of neuroendocrine dedifferentiation during progression from hormone-sensitive to refractory stage.

    We report a case of orbital metastasis from a neuroendocrine dedifferentiated prostate cancer during progression from hormone-sensitive to hormone refractory stage. A patient receiving androgen deprivation for hormone-sensitive prostate cancer presented with sudden-onset right-sided ptosis and an increasing serum prostate-specific antigen level. Imaging studies revealed a mixed blastic and lytic lesion involving the right orbital wall and the right cavernous sinus. Comparison of the metastatic histology with the original pathology confirmed a histologic change to poorly differentiated prostate adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features. Local radiation of the lesion and palliative systemic chemotherapy resulted in marked short-term improvement of all presenting symptoms. Because prostate cancer metastasis involves hematogenous and lymphatic routes, we also evaluated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3) in the metastatic deposit by immunohistochemistry. Strong expression of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 restricted to the malignant epithelium was noted. We recommend a second biopsy of atypical prostate metastasis associated with sudden change to aggressive clinical behavior in order to evaluate for dedifferentiation features before planning appropriate treatment interventions especially in patients who are candidates for systemic chemotherapy. ( info)

19/75. Mucinous endometrial carcinoma in a patient with previous ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma presenting some 18 years after initial bilateral ovariectomy: a case report.

    The association of endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and primary carcinoma of the endometrium is well recognised. These tumours are often synchronous in occurrence. Oestrogen stimulation is often postulated as a significant factor in the development of the endometrial carcinoma in such cases. We describe the case of a patient who developed a mucinous endometrial carcinoma 18 years after initial bilateral ovariectomy. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the uterine tumour is discussed. ( info)

20/75. Primary hormone treatment in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    Clinical benefits of hormone therapy in patients with hormone-sensitive tumors have been clearly established. Postmenopausal women with positive hormone receptors represent the largest group of patients in whom early stage breast cancer is diagnosed. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane) are active and well tolerated in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive metastasic or locally advanced breast cancer as first or second line treatment. These are also valuable agents in the neoadjuvant setting in postmenopausal women, and even as single treatment in localized breast tumors in women not amenable to surgery. ( info)
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