Cases reported "Virus Diseases"

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11/251. Papular acrodermatitis of childhood: the Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.

    Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (PAC), also known as Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, is a self-limited disorder with acute onset generalized lymphadenopathy and monomorphic lentil-sized, dense, nonconfluent, symmetric, flat-topped, non-pruritic papules. We describe 2 patients, one with anicteric hepatitis, lymphocytosis, and positive hepatitis b surface antigenemia, and the other with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. ( info)

12/251. Anesthetic management of toxic epidermal necrolysis: report of three adult cases.

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a rare but acute life-threatening syndrome in which the epidermis blisters and peels in large sheets. In general, patients with this syndrome are managed as severe second-degree burn patients, but special consideration should be given to mucous membrane involvement that reduces fluid intake and worsens the fluid deficit, systemic involvement that makes these patients hemodynamically unstable, and progression of cutaneous lesions that enhances the risk of infection and sepsis. ( info)

13/251. Cases from the aerospace medicine Residents' teaching File: acute onset of dizziness in a USAF aviator.

    An air Force F-15 pilot develops the sudden onset of incapacitating dizziness with nausea and vomiting not associated with flight. Presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and aeromedical issues surrounding the symptom complex of acute onset vertigo is discussed. ( info)

14/251. Vagal neuropathy after upper respiratory infection: a viral etiology?

    PURPOSE: To describe a condition that occurs following an upper respiratory illness, which represents injury to various branches of the vagus nerve. patients with this condition may present with breathy dysphonia, vocal fatigue, effortful phonation, odynophonia, cough, globus, and/or dysphagia, lasting long after resolution of the acute viral illness. The patterns of symptoms and findings in this condition are consistent with the hypothesis that viral infection causes or triggers vagal dysfunction. This so-called postviral vagal neuropathy (PVVN) appears to have similarities with other postviral neuropathic disorders, such as glossopharyngeal neuralgia and Bell's palsy. MATERIALS AND methods: Five patients were identified with PVVN. Each patient's chart was reviewed, and elements of the history were recorded. RESULTS: Each of the 5 patients showed different features of PVVN. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory infection can trigger or cause vocal fold paresis, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and neuropathic pain. ( info)

15/251. Atypical subacute thyroiditis: preliminary observations.

    Nine patients with painless or minimally painful subacute thyroiditis were seen between late June and October 2000. Six had a history of antecedant viral symptoms. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies were negative in eight patients tested; none had a family history of autoimmune thyroid disease. It is possible that these patients represent examples of postviral painless subacute thyroiditis (atypical subacute thyroiditis). In order to establish the nature of the syndrome, cytological examination, HLA typing, and long-term follow-up are necessary. ( info)

16/251. The role of infections in primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case series and review of the literature.

    There is a paucity of literature addressing infection-related morbidity and mortality in children with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare condition characterized by abnormal proliferation of macrophages, hypercytokinemia, and T cell immunosuppression. Therefore, a retrospective chart review was done of patients diagnosed with primary HLH over a 15-year period. Significant infections present at diagnosis, during the course of illness, and just prior to death or at autopsy were noted. Of the 18 children identified with primary HLH, an infectious agent was documented at the initial presentation of HLH in 5. Significant infections occurred during therapy in 10 (56%) of 18. Of the 12 fatal cases, invasive infection was the cause of death in 8 children, and 6 of these deaths were directly attributable to invasive fungal infection. Significant infections were common during therapy in children with primary HLH, and fungal infections were an important cause of mortality in this group. ( info)

17/251. Th1/Th2 balance alteration in the clinical course of a patient with acute viral myocarditis.

    cytokines have an important role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of myocarditis. In this study, subsets of peripheral helper T lymphocytes (Th) in a patient with acute viral myocarditis were analyzed by 3-color flow cytometry. During the clinical course of myocarditis, the Th1/Th2 ratio of peripheral lymphocytes changed. Th1 was dominant in the acute inflammatory phase during which levels of creatine kinase (CK) increased (day 6), then Th2 levels overtook those of Th1 in the recovery phase during which levels of CK decreased (day 13 and 20). At the time of discharge (day 35), Th1 and Th2 had normalized. Thus, it was speculated that the induction of lymphocytic myocarditis was associated with Th1 dominant status, and recovery was related to Th2 polarity. Th subset imbalances may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute viral myocarditis and these analyses may be useful for understanding the disease activity of myocarditis. ( info)

18/251. Unusual viral infections (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and cytomegalovirus disease) after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous blood stem cell rescue and peritransplantation rituximab.

    Efforts to reduce relapse of non-Hodgkin lymphoma after autologous transplantation have included ex vivo stem cell selection and/or peritransplantation immunotherapy. The late infectious and immunologic consequences of these maneuvers are not well understood, although an increase in early cytomegaloviral disease after CD34( ) stem cell selection and an alteration in immunoglobulin and T-cell recovery after peritransplantation rituximab has been noted. We report the first 2 cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by JC papovavirus after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and a case each of cytomegalovirus retinitis and pneumonitis. All 4 patients experienced significant impairment of CD4 T-cell recovery, placing them at risk for these unusual viral infections. The clustering of cases is concerning because all occurred shortly after the introduction of peritransplantation rituximab into treatment protocols (4 of 62 immunotherapy recipients compared with 0 of 276 without; z = 3.595; P <.001), although a direct association with this CD20 B-cell-directed therapy remains speculative. ( info)

19/251. Increased serum thymidine kinase activity in acute sarcoidosis.

    This is the first case report of acute sarcoidosis with increased serum thymidine kinase (TK) activity. A 43-year-old male presented fever, swelling of parotid glands, lymphadenopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. sarcoidosis was pathologically diagnosed by lung and parotid gland biopsy. His serum TK, which was increased to 11.2 U/l at diagnosis (normal <5 U/l), normalized after glucocorticoid therapy. serum TK has been considered as a good marker of the proliferative activity of various types of neoplasms. Its rise in sarcoidosis has, however, not been described. Because acute sarcoidosis sometimes resembles malignant lymphoma, the possible rise of serum TK in sarcoidosis may be worthy of note. ( info)

20/251. Immunoglobulin synthesis in vitro by cerebrospinal fluid cells in patients with meningoencephalitis of presumed viral origin.

    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells from six patients with meningoencephalitis of presumed viral origin were incubated in the presence of labeled amino acids. The cells of two of the patients synthesized IgG, IgA, and IgM (one patient) in vitro. The CSF of these two patients had an elevated level of IgG with oligoclonal distribution. The newly synthesized IgG also had an oligoclonal distribution. CSF cells of the other four patients were not shown to synthesize immunoglobulins in vitro. The CSF of these patients had a normal level of IgG with polyclonal distribution. The results demonstrate that in some patients with virus meningoencephalitis an immunoglobulin synthesis takes place locally and that at least part of the IgG shows a restricted heterogeneity. The results also suggest the presence of stimulated lymphocytes in the CSF of the same patients. ( info)
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