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1/127. Fatal polyarteritis nodosa with massive mesenteric necrosis in a child.

    polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare vasculitic syndrome in childhood. There are few reported cases of ischaemic necrosis of the intestine and even fewer survivors in adults. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with PAN and an acute abdomen that required operative intervention. Evidence was found of mesenteric arteritis with large ischaemic segments resulting in infarction and perforation.
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2/127. Ovarian cavernous hemangioma in an 8-year-old girl.

    The case of an ovarian cavernous hemangioma with torsion in an 8-year-old girl is described. Current literature records less than 50 cases of which only 8 are in children. The presenting symptoms of acute abdomen and the ultrasonographic study led to the preoperative diagnosis of torsion of an ovarian tumor. Salpingo-oophorectomy and appendicectomy were performed with an uneventful postoperative course. The histological pattern of the tumor was that of an entirely cavernous hemangioma. The case is reported in view of its rarity.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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3/127. Primary repair of cornual rupture occurring at 21 weeks gestation and successful pregnancy outcome.

    The successful delivery in a 31 year old woman at 33 weeks gestation is reported, after repair to a cornual rupture which occurred at 21 weeks gestation. The patient exhibited acute abdominal pain and pending shock. Emergency laparotomy showed a cornual rupture and an intrauterine vital fetus having intact amnion membrane. On the patient's family's insistence, primary repair for a cornual rupture was performed and preservation of the fetus attempted. Postoperatively, tocolytic agent with ritodrine hydrochloride was administered and close follow-up of the patient was uneventful. The patient had a smooth obstetric course until 33 weeks gestation when premature rupture of the membranes occurred, soon followed by the onset of labour. She underwent an elective Caesarean section and delivered a normal male fetus weighing 2140 g with Apgar scores at 1, 5 and 10 min of 6, 8, and 9 respectively. Because of this successful outcome, we suggest that primary repair for such an unusual patient should be accepted.
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4/127. Seldom found acute abdomen: perforated diverticulum in the transverse colon.

    The authors report a recently examined rare case of isolated perforated diverticulum of the transverse colon. At surgery, a perforated omentum-sealed diverticulum was found in the third distal wall of the transverse colon. A diverticulectomy was performed. The postoperative course was excellent.
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5/127. Accidentally delayed diagnosis of ruptured ovarian carcinoma in a young woman: a care report.

    Ovarian carcinoma commonly occurs in postmenopausal women and often presents with an insidious course. Acute abdomen is rarely an initial symptom. When these patients present with abdominal discomfort, the disease has already spread throughout the peritoneal cavity. We present a case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a young woman who presented with acute abdomen and intra-abdominal bleeding. This 24-year-old woman was previously diagnosed with a ruptured left ovarian cystic tumor at a primary clinic. She underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy, followed by unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at the clinic. No thorough examination of the peritoneal cavity was done during surgery. The diagnosis of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma was accidentally over-looked until one month later when she returned for routine follow-up. Upon referral to our clinic, the patient underwent a repeat laparotomy. The surgicopathologic diagnosis was intraperitoneal carcinomatosis stage IIIC that could not be excised completely, even though rigorous staging surgery including washing cytology, total abdominal hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, appendectomy, infracolic omentectomy and excision of any suspicious and removable lesions were performed. This case alerts us to consider the possibility of ovarian malignancy when a young woman presents with an acute abdomen secondary to ruptured ovarian cystic tumor and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Careful preoperative preparation and thorough intrasurgical examination of the peritoneal cavity along with a prompt pathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions will prevent missed diagnoses.
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6/127. gallbladder torsion: case report and review of 245 cases reported in the Japanese literature.

    We report here a case of torsion of the gallbladder in a 73-year-old woman. The patient was admitted to our hospital with right hypochondralgia. ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a distended gallbladder, with a multilayered wall, which contained no stones. Since the symptoms did not respond to antibiotics, laparotomy was performed. The gallbladder was found to be twisted around its pedicle and to be gangrenous. cholecystectomy was performed, and the patient had an uneventful postoperative course. We also reviewed 245 cases reported in the Japanese literature. The clinical features of gallbladder torsion, which include low frequency of fever and jaundice, poor response to antibiotic therapy, and acute onset of abdominal pain, may be helpful in the differential diagnosis from acute cholecystitis. Moreover, a highly suggestive sign of gallbladder torsion observed by ultrasonography or computed tomography is a markedly enlarged "floating" gallbladder with a continuous hypoechoic line indicating edematous change in the wall.
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7/127. Ruptured metastatic ovarian carcinoma presenting as acute abdomen.

    Acute abdomen is a challenge to first-line physicians because of frequently missed diagnoses and potential follow-on legal problems. Improving the management of these patients is of paramount importance, not only for saving lives, but also for reducing untoward problems associated with improper management. We present a case of a patient with acute abdomen due to intraperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an ovarian tumor. Following emergency surgery, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Because of improper preparation of the gastrointestinal tract, the patient underwent repeat exploratory laparotomy for colon carcinoma. Although this situation did not affect the outcome of the patient in this case, we are concerned that the patient did not benefit from a single operation, with primary complete excision of the tumor plus a colostomy. The outcome of patients with pelvic malignancy, especially those with ovarian carcinoma, might be better if initial surgery achieved optimal tumor debulking. This is possible with good preoperative planning and preparation. We emphasize the importance of preoperative preparation in spite of urgently needed care. Furthermore, every first-line physician should communicate the possibility of malignancy to patients and their families.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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8/127. Retroperitoneal teratoma presenting as acute abdomen in an elderly person.

    A 56-year-old man presented with acute abdomen. Clinically, he was diagnosed as having perigastric abscess. On exploration, a retroperitoneal cystic teratoma was encountered. Postoperatively, he recovered uneventfully and has no residual disease two years later.
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keywords = operative
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9/127. Cecal duplications: a rare cause for secondary intussusception.

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital anomalies that may occur at any level from mouth to anus. While the oesophagus and the ileum are the most common sites, duplications of the colon are rare. Two cases of ileocolic intussusceptions in 8-month-old girl and 6-month-old boy who were admitted to our hospital with acute abdomen findings are presented. Intraoperatively, cecal cystic duplications leading intussusception were revealed. intussusception is one of the most important surgical emergence in infancy and typically, it does not involve a lead point in childhood. Although duplication cyst may act as lead point, the review of literature reveals its rarity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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10/127. Segmental infarction of the omentum secondary to torsion: ultrasound and computed tomography diagnosis.

    Segmental infarction of the omentum is a rare clinical entity that is seldom considered in the differential diagnosis for acute abdominal pain, especially as the clinical findings are so non-specific. Consequently, the diagnosis is usually made intraoperatively. The two cases presented here demonstrate the characteristic appearance of omental infarction on ultrasound and CT, which enables preoperative diagnosis. Preoperative radiological diagnosis may prevent unnecessary surgery.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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