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1/10. A case of "silent" pheochromocytoma presenting as spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma.

    pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland can be the cause of massive and lethal retroperitoneal haemorrhage presenting as acute abdomen. Here we report a case of retroperitoneal hematoma, with concomitant peritoneal spillage, due to the spontaneous rupture of a silent pheochromocytoma. The main clinical findings of this disease will be described. Therapy and prognosis will be also discussed.
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2/10. pheochromocytoma presenting as an abdominal emergency: association with perforation of the colon.

    A pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor derived from the adrenal medulla (or from chromaffin cells of sympathetic ganglia). Its symptoms derive mostly from the excessive release of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline). hypertension is the most recognized feature of this disease, but gastrointestinal manifestations can on rare occasions be just as serious and life threatening. This report describes a rare case of a 70-year-old woman with pheochromocytoma who developed an acute abdominal emergency with shock and panperitonitis as a result of perforation of the descending colon which was effectively treated by surgical removal of the tumor and the perforated colon. There have been 2 such cases in the English literature in whom a pheochromocytoma was associated with perforation of the colon. Successful surgical removal of such a pheochromocytoma has been not reported previously. Our case demonstrates the importance of recognizing that a pheochromocytoma presents with a wide spectrum of manifestations, and rapid treatment brings improvement to the patient.
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3/10. A case of a ruptured pheochromocytoma with an intratumoral aneurysm managed by coil embolization.

    Although the spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma is rare, it can be lethal because it can induce serious changes in the circulation. We describe a 32 year old man with bilateral pheochromocyroma presenting as abdominal pain. In the emergency room, an abdominal MRI showed an aneurysmal vessel in the right adrenal mass and accompanying hemorrhage around the tumor capsule. The bleeding site was found by transfemoral abdominal angiography. Coil embolization was done in the bleeding vessels, specifically branches of the right adrenal artery. The hemorrhage was successfully controlled and vital signs of the patient were restored. Following emergency care, biochemical and imaging studies showed compatible findings of a bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma. Postoperative histologic findings confirmed these observations. A ruptured pheochromocytoma should be considered as a cause of acute abdomen in cases of a concomitant adrenal mass. Intratumoral aneurysmal bleeding may be a cause of ruptured tumor, and careful angiographic intervention will help to ensure safe control of bleeding in such an emergency situation, even in cases of bilateral tumor.
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ranking = 5
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4/10. Addison's disease presenting with an acute abdomen and complicated by cardiomyopathy.

    adrenal insufficiency typically presents with non-specific symptoms, followed by shock secondary to a salt-wasting crisis and/or the vascular effects of glucocorticoid deficiency if it progresses to acute adrenal insufficiency. rhabdomyolysis and cardiac dysfunction are rarely reported, particularly in children. We report a child with adrenal insufficiency, presenting with acute abdominal signs, probably secondary to rhabdomyolysis, and complicated by reversible cardiomyopathy. Acute adrenal insufficiency should be considered with this presentation. The possibility of impaired cardiac function during its treatment should also be considered.
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ranking = 3
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5/10. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma with capsular invasion.

    A 67-year-old Japanese man developed a sudden onset of severe right-side upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. On hospitalization, physical examination revealed sweating, tachycardia, hypertension and the appearance of peripheral vasoconstriction. An urgent computed tomography scan with contrast demonstrated a large hematoma in the right retroperitoneal space. A phentolamine test and an 131iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine scan suggested pheochromocytoma. An elective right adrenalectomy was successfully performed after pretreatment for sufficient volume replacement with continuous administration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Pathological diagnosis was an adrenal pheochromocytoma 9.0 x 6.5 cm in diameter with evidence of capsular invasion, which could be associated with a tear in the capsule.
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ranking = 6
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6/10. ACTH-induced adrenal hemorrhage: a complication of therapy masquerading as an acute abdomen.

    Four patients developed adrenal hemorrhage during treatment with intravenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This complication presented suddenly with upper abdominal and flank pain mimicking an acute surgical abdomen. In each patient the symptoms of the underlying bowel disease had subsided under the ACTH therapy. In our first patient the diagnosis was not made until laparotomy, but in the subsequent three patients the diagnosis was suspected by the strikingly similar clinical presentation. In each of these three latter patients the diagnosis was confirmed by sonography or computed tomography (CT) scan, and surgery was avoided. All four of our patients are doing well at 1-58 months of follow-up. Signs of adrenal insufficiency occurred only in the one of our four patients, and in those six of 11 previously reported patients, who had bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. ACTH-induced adrenal hemorrhage requires stopping ACTH and maintaining corticosteroid support. The diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage should be considered in the patient treated with ACTH who develops unexplained acute abdominal or flank pain. Failure to recognize this complication of ACTH therapy can lead to unnecessary surgery or the dangerous continuation of the offending agent.
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ranking = 9
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7/10. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma: a case report.

    A case of right adrenal pheochromocytoma was described which presented as an acute abdominal emergency and resulted in shock due to spontaneous rupture into the retroperitoneum. Spontaneous remission of clinical symptoms followed and the tumor was safely resected later. Scintigraphic imaging using 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine clearly demonstrated the tumor when endocrinological examinations were within normal ranges.
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ranking = 5
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8/10. Lupus anticoagulant masquerading as an acute abdomen with multiorgan involvement.

    A 45-yr-old male patient developed acute abdominal pain, ileus, and microscopic hematuria with biochemical evidence of pancreatitis and a marked increase in liver alkaline phosphatase; CT demonstrated swelling of the pancreas, bilateral adrenal hemorrhage, and a suggestion of renal hemorrhage. ERCP was negative and renal arterial and venous blood flow normal. A coagulation profile demonstrated the presence of lupus anticoagulant, but tests for anticardiolipin antibodies and collagen vascular diseases were negative. Treatment with corticosteroids and anticoagulation resulted in improvement in clinical and all biochemical indices. Thus, lupus anticoagulant syndrome may masquerade as an acute abdominal illness with multiorgan involvement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = adrenal
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9/10. Acute abdominal symptoms caused by hemorrhagic necrosis of a pheochromocytoma: report of a case.

    The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is often difficult in a patient presenting with acute illness but without the classical constitutional symptoms. We report herein the case of a woman who developed acute abdominal symptoms following hemorrhagic necrosis of a previously unsuspected pheochromocytoma. This patient underwent successful emergency resuscitation followed later by elective surgical resection of a right adrenal pheochromocytoma. A review of 27 other cases indicates that a fatal outcome is likely to result without the initiation of prompt and appropriate emergency treatment, followed later by removal of the tumor. Thus, early diagnosis is important not only for controlling hypertension, but also because performing a laparotomy on a patient with unrecognized hemorrhagic necrosis of pheochromocytoma can create a potentially lethal situation.
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10/10. Spontaneous rupture of the liver. An unusual complication of SLE.

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus developed an acute surgical abdomen secondary to spontaneous rupture of the liver and died. Postmortem examination revealed an arteritis of the liver, pancreas, adrenal gland, skeletal muscle, and spleen. It appeared that an arteritis of the liver produced areas of infarction that ruptured and caused the clinical findings.
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keywords = adrenal
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