Cases reported "AIDS Dementia Complex"

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1/11. Localization of retrovirus in the central nervous system of a patient co-infected with HTLV-1 and HIV with HAM/TSP and HIV-associated dementia.

    persons co-infected with HTLV-1 and HIV are at increased risk for neurologic disease. These patients may develop HAM/TSP and/or HIV-associated dementia. In this study, we localized cells infected with retrovirus in the central nervous system (CNS) of a patient with both HAM/TSP and HIV-associated dementia. HTLV-1 was localized to astrocytes and HIV to macrophage/microglia. There was no co-infection of a single cell phenotype in this patient. These data suggest that mechanisms other than co-infection of the same CNS cell may play a role in the development of neurologic disease in patients dual infected with HTLV-1 and HIV.
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2/11. Proteomic fingerprinting of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated dementia from patient monocyte-derived macrophages: A case study.

    The emergence of a subset of circulating monocytes during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) disease has been shown to correlate with cognitive impairment. Thus, it is hypothesized that diagnostic protein profiles may be obtained from these cells from patients with or at risk for hiv-1-associated dementia (HAD). To address this possibility, we used ProteinChip assays to define a unique monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) protein fingerprint during HAD and whether it is affected by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The study included five Hispanic women, one with HAD, two hiv-1-infected without cognitive impairment, and two seronegative controls. All patients were matched by age and immune status. monocytes were recovered from the peripheral blood leukocytes by Percoll gradient centrifugation and allowed to differentiate in vitro for 7 days. Cell lysates and supernatants were collected from the MDM and analyzed by surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight ProteinChip assays. Seven unique protein peaks between 3.0 and 20.0 kDa were found in the HAD MDM sample. Each of these proteins were abrogated after HAART. Additional studies extending this one time point determination would serve to confirm the general utility of MDM protein profiling for the diagnosis and monitoring of HAD.
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3/11. HIV leucoencephalopathy and TNFalpha expression in neurones.

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leucoencephalopathy (HIVL) is an uncommon and rapidly progressive form of aids dementia complex (ADC) that has remained poorly understood. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ADC, is predominantly localised in macrophages in the HIV infected brain, although in vitro studies indicate that neurones can express this cytokine. OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical/neuroradiological features of HIVL and the expression of TNFalpha in HIVL. methods: Six patients who presented with rapidly progressive dementia within four to 12 weeks of the primary manifestation of their HIV infection were evaluated. Clinical history, treatment regimens, and imaging studies were reviewed, and brain samples from three of the patients were studied by means of immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Imaging studies showed diffuse bilateral deep white matter changes in all six patients. Clinical and imaging abnormalities improved in five of the six patients within weeks after initiation of antiretroviral treatment. brain biopsies of two showed pronounced microglia/macrophage activation, but only scant viral protein (gp41) expression. Staining for TNFalpha was found in microglia/macrophages, and surprisingly, in neurones also. Postmortem analysis of a third patient also showed TNFalpha expression in neurones of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first demonstration of staining for TNFalpha in the neurones of the HIV infected brain, and suggests that the process underlying this rapidly progressive form of ADC may reflect indirect mechanisms mediated by host factors, particularly TNFalpha.
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4/11. Pathogenesis of HIV encephalitis.

    A wide spectrum of infectious agents attack the central nervous system (CNS) of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself, infects the CNS of a subgroup of these patients. The mechanism behind why HIV enters the CNS is unclear. We have observed an interesting association between HIV and opportunistic viral infections that may explain why HIV enters the brain. Infection of the CNS by opportunistic agents results in recruitment of latently HIV-infected monocytes. Upon differentiation into macrophages these cells produce abundant HIV. Latent HIV-infection of monocytes/macrophages provides a unique opportunity for cooperativity between opportunistic infections and HIV in mediating CNS damage.
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5/11. Immunohistochemical characterization of multinucleated giant cells in the brain of a Japanese AIDS patient.

    In an autopsy case of a 35-year-old Japanese hemophiliac with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), many multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) were observed throughout the central nervous system. Immunohistochemically, MGCs possessed surface and cytoplasmic macrophage antigens expressed in the late stage of differentiation indicating them to be macrophages in the terminal stage of differentiation. Fine nuclear extensions connecting one nucleus (or lobe) to another were often observed in the MGCs. This feature was interpreted as multilobulation and considered to be a morphological characteristic of MGCs in AIDS encephalopathy. Similarity between MGCs in AIDS encephalopathy and highly lobulated lymphocytes in adult T cell leukemia is discussed.
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6/11. Severe encephalitis resulting from coinfections with HIV and jc virus.

    We observed 3 cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) among frozen CNS samples obtained at autopsy from 102 adult AIDS patients. In 2 patients, PML was associated with severe HIV encephalitis. In those 2 cases, the areas of extensive JC-induced demyelination were massively infiltrated by HIV infected macrophages/microglial cells with evidence for localized increase of HIV encephalitis in PML lesions. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that each virus infects, in a latent or productive fashion, different CNS cell populations. Therefore, the extension of HIV encephalitis could not be related to an intracellular transactivation of 1 virus by the other. However, the results are consistent with dissemination of viral infection by the recruitment of HIV-infected macrophages to damaged areas of the brain. This phenomenon might be generalized to other pathogens that are frequently associated with HIV CNS infection. Early detection and treatment of opportunistic CNS lesions could be important to prevent extension of HIV encephalitis.
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7/11. Multifocal vacuolar leucoencephalopathy: a distinct HIV-associated lesion of the brain.

    A 20-year-old male AIDS patient developed rapidly progressive dementia for more than 3 months prior to death. autopsy showed, in addition to adrenal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and focal cerebral necrosis due to toxoplasmosis, multifocal subcortical white matter lesions of the brain which were strikingly similar to the histopathology of vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS. These distinct lesions contained macrophages which were rarely multinucleated and expressed HIV antigens by immunocytochemistry. The distribution of lesions mimics extrapontine myelinolysis and progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML); PML was excluded by the absence of papovaviruses by immunocytochemistry and by in situ dna hybridization. Tissue damage in multifocal vacuolar leucoencephalopathy is different from hitherto characterized HIV-specific neuropathology such as HIV encephalitis and HIV leucoencephalopathy, and should be included in the list of conditions with damage of the brain white matter in AIDS.
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8/11. Immunohistochemical localization of an HIV epitope in cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    A 6-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed aphasia and quadriplegia 3 months before his death. Cerebral vascular ectasia and multiple cerebral infarcts were noted on premortem radiological studies. Postmortem evaluation revealed diffuse aneurysmal dilatation of the circle of willis associated with fresh and organizing thrombi, destruction of the elastic lamina, and marked intimal fibroplasia. Multiple cerebral infarcts and subacute AIDS encephalitis with basal ganglia calcification were also present. immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody (anti-gp41) to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) demonstrated positively stained cells in the arterial wall of the circle of willis and in the cerebral parenchyma. Double immunostaining demonstrated that gp41-positive cells in the circle of willis were also positive for a macrophage marker or leukocyte-common antigen, but not with an endothelial marker. Some macrophages or microglia in the cerebrum were also colabeled with anti-gp41. These results suggest that HIV may be directly involved in vascular pathology associated with pediatric AIDS.
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9/11. Vacuolar myelopathy with multinucleated giant cells in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). light and electron microscopic distribution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens.

    Vacuolar myelopathy (VM) is a frequent neurological complication of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A suspected connection between VM and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been based only on HIV isolation from affected spinal cord tissue. We report here an AIDS patient dying after 14 months of progressive dementia, including 3 months of spinal signs and symptoms. At autopsy, the brain revealed moderate diffuse damage of the white matter compatible with HIV-induced progressive diffuse leukoencephalopathy. The spinal cord showed VM mainly in the lateral and the posterior columns. Mono- and multinucleated macrophages were localized within intramyelinic and periaxonal vacuoles. light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of hiv antigens restricted to mono- and multinucleated macrophages within the spongy lesions. Productive HIV infection is documented for the first time within VM lesions of this case. Therefore, VM should be included among HIV-induced lesions of the central nervous system. The intimate relation of infected macrophages to vacuolar myelinopathy could suggest secretion of a myelinotoxic factor by macrophages productively infected by HIV. Immune electron microscopy appears as promising tool to detect HIV in tissue even when the density of virus may be low.
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10/11. neuroimaging and neuropathologic findings in AIDS patient with cytomegalovirus infection.

    This 21-year-old male with hemophilia a developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). He had a history of numerous blood transfusions. serum antibody titers became positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), when the patient was 18 years of age. Three years later, he developed CMV retinitis due to his immunosuppression. ganciclovir (DENOSINE, TANABE SEIYAKU CO., LTD., Osaka, japan) therapy given for 4 weeks produced a marked improvement in the ocular fundal findings, but the neurologic signs and symptoms, including headache, hypoesthesia, disorientation, and dementia became worse. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a diffuse high intensity area in the periventricular white matter and small focal or patchy lesions in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, midbrain, medulla oblongata and the nucleus dentatus. The patient died of HIV encephalopathy and CMV infection. Characteristic CMV intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in most sites of the brain including the hippocampus, white matter, basal ganglia, midbrain, medulla oblongata, nucleus dentatus and the retina. Infiltration by monocyte-macrophage and multinucleated giant cells, which are characteristic of HIV encephalopathy, were observed in the periventricular white matter and the hippocampus. In this patient, the neuroimaging findings were compatible with the neuropathologic observations. MR imaging proved useful in detecting the central nervous system (CNS) lesions of AIDS and CMV infection.
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