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1/760. Adipsic hypernatremia in two patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus encephalitis.

    In patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hypoosmolality is frequently observed, whereas hypernatremia is distinctly rare. We report two patients with advanced AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, who developed severe hypernatremia without any thirst sensation, that is, adipsic hypernatremia. Both developed severe hypernatremia of up to 164 and 162 mmol/L, with serum osmolalities of 358 and 344 mOsmol/kg while remaining alert and denying thirst. serum antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels were 0.9 and 1.5 pg/mL, inappropriately low for the concomitant serum osmolalities. vital signs were stable. During hypernatremia, urine osmolalities were 327 and 340 mOsmol/kg, and urine Na levels were 56 and 119 mmol/L, respectively. Periventricular white matter lesions were seen on cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) in case 1, but the pituitary appeared normal in both cases. survival after onset of hypernatremia was 6 and 4 weeks, respectively. autopsy in case 1 showed typical findings of CMV encephalitis but normal pituitary, confirming that infection with HIV or CMV most likely caused the dysfunction of the central osmostat.
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2/760. Laryngeal pathology in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has produced a growing population of patients who, because of their associated immune system compromise, are prone to opportunistic infections and neoplastic diseases. The larynx, with its relatively inaccessible yet critical anatomic location, is a site in which these processes can produce clinical dilemmas, with respect to diagnosis as well as to therapy. By presenting 4 cases involving unusual laryngeal problems in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we emphasize these inherent diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Otolaryngologists must be familiar with the many diagnostic possibilities and therapeutic alternatives when HIV-infected patients present with laryngeal complaints.
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3/760. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: first case report in taiwan.

    Mycobacterium genavense is a recently described fastidious mycobacterium identified as a pathogen causing disseminated infection in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. In this report, we describe the first reported case of disseminated M. genavense infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in taiwan. A 22-year-old Chinese man was found to be seropositive for HIV at age 18, in 1993. In 1997, he presented with abdominal pain, weight loss, low cd4 lymphocyte count, hepatomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Microscopic examination of a biopsy specimen from an inguinal lymph node showed both ill- and well-formed noncaseating granulomas. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were present in the histiocyte cytoplasm. Although the organism did not grow on conventional solid media used in our laboratory, two molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing of 16S rRNA, and PCR together with restriction enzyme fragment polymorphism analysis, confirmed the M. genavense infection. The patient's abdominal symptoms responded well to a chemotherapy regimen that included ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin, and he survived more than 6 months after diagnosis. However, the lymphadenopathy was still present at his final follow-up. Our report indicates that disseminated infection with M. genavense should be added to the list of differential diagnoses of secondary infections in advanced AIDS patients in taiwan.
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4/760. Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome as an early manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome is a recently recognized variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, developing in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other conditions causing immune compromise. We report a case in which the diagnosis of retinal necrosis syndrome was made before the diagnosis of AIDS was confirmed. A 41-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of blurred vision in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed extensive retinal necrosis with total retinal detachment in his left eye and multifocal deep retinal lesions scattered in the posterior fundus as well as in the peripheral retina in his right eye. The serologic test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive. Despite intravenous acyclovir treatment for 1 week, the lesions in the right eye showed rapid progression. High doses of intravitreal ganciclovir were then given in addition to intravenous acyclovir. After combined treatment for 1 month, the lesions became quiescent and the visual acuity improved to 20/30. Although the patient soon developed full-blown AIDS, the vision in his right eye remained undisturbed. physicians should suspect progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome in any patient with rapidly progressive necrotizing retinopathy and test the patient for HIV infection. Aggressive combined antiviral agent therapy should be considered to save vision.
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5/760. iritis associated with intravenous cidofovir.

    OBJECTIVE: To report two patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis who developed iritis after receiving intravenous cidofovir. Both experienced recurrent symptoms upon rechallenge. CASE SUMMARIES: Two HIV-positive patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis infections previously controlled with intravenous ganciclovir or foscarnet were treated with intravenous cidofovir. Symptoms of iritis developed after the second or third dose of cidofovir. One patient experienced symptoms unilaterally, while the other patient had bilateral symptoms. In both patients, the iritis resolved with topical ophthalmic therapy, but recurred following subsequent infusions of cidofovir. Therapy with cidofovir was discontinued, and no further recurrences of iritis were noted. One patient had post-inflammatory fixed dilated pupils. CONCLUSIONS: iritis can uncommonly occur in patients receiving intravenous cidofovir and oral probenecid. With prompt drug discontinuation and administration of topical corticosteroids and/or mydriatic agents, symptoms are usually reversible.
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6/760. Potential complication associated with removal of ganciclovir implants.

    PURPOSE: To describe the complication of separation of the medication pellet from the tab during the removal of a ganciclovir implant. METHOD: case reports. RESULTS: Separation of the pellet from the tab upon removal of ganciclovir implants occurred at the time of reimplantation in two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases show the possibility of pellet separation from the tab during the removal of a ganciclovir implant. Although pellet separation from its tab is rare, surgeons should be aware of this potential complication. Modifying recommended techniques to remove the ganciclovir implant may reduce the incidence of pellet-tab separation.
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7/760. Paralytic poliomyelitis associated with live oral poliomyelitis vaccine in child with HIV infection in zimbabwe: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a complication of oral vaccination with live, attenuated poliomyelitis virus in a child infected with HIV. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: teaching hospital in Harare, zimbabwe. SUBJECTS: A boy of 41/2 years and his mother. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of clinical and laboratory investigations. RESULTS: Two weeks after receiving the second dose of oral poliomyelitis vaccine during national immunisation days the child developed paralysis of the right leg. He had a high titre of antibodies against poliovirus type 2, as well as antibodies against hiv-1, a low CD4 count, a ratio of CD4 to CD8 count of 0.47, and hypergammaglobulinaemia. He did not have any antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, or poliovirus types 1 and 3, although he had been given diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis and oral polio vaccines during his first year and a booster of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine at 24 months. He had no clinical symptoms of AIDS, but his mother had AIDS and tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: Paralytic poliomyelitis in this child with HIV infection was caused by poliovirus type 2 after oral poliomyelitis vaccine.
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8/760. Management of opportunistic infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. I. Treatment.

    A case report of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is described. The patient presents with a multitude of medical complaints that are of acute or subacute onset. The medical examination of these complaints is described and includes algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections, including pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, mycobacterium avium complex, cytomegalovirus infection, and cryptococcal meningitis.
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9/760. Severe anal ulceration secondary to histoplasma capsulatum in a patient with HIV disease.

    Severe fungal infections have become increasingly common in the immunocompromised patient, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. histoplasma capsulatum occurs in about five per cent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in the endemic areas of the mississippi and ohio River Valley. Immunocompromised patients who present with severe ulceration and suppuration of the anus require exam under anesthesia and thorough laboratory evaluation for opportunistic infections. Thus, surgeons play a critical role in diagnosis and initiation of treatment. A case of infiltrating H. capsulatum of the anus is presented, including the natural history, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
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10/760. Retinal pigment epithelial dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    OBJECTIVE: Prior clinical observations led the authors to examine electrophysiologic measures of retinal (electroretinogram [ERG]) and retinal pigment epithelial (electro-oculogram [EOG]) function in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who either had or did not have cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in order to determine if the ERG or EOG measures were differentially affected in CMV retinitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-one HIV-infected patients (20 with and 21 without CMV retinopathy) were evaluated. INTERVENTION: ERGs and EOGs were recorded. patients' fundi were evaluated by indirect ophthalmoscopy or fundus photography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes and EOG light/dark amplitude ratio (L/D ratio) from the eyes of all patients were compared with values 2 standard deviations from the mean of a normal sample. The area of the retinal lesions was estimated from fundus photographs or from careful drawings made during indirect ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: The majority of the eyes (64.5%) of the patients with CMV retinitis had subnormal L/D ratios, and most eyes (95%) of patients without CMV retinitis had normal L/D ratios. Only six eyes (four with and two without CMV retinopathy) had subnormal a-wave amplitudes, and there was no significant correlation between a-wave amplitude and the L/D ratio for patients with CMV retinitis. Most eyes (80.6%) of the patients with CMV retinitis had subnormal b-wave amplitudes, but there was no significant correlation between b-wave amplitude and L/D ratio in the patients with CMV retinitis. In three patients with CMV retinitis selected to exemplify the range of effects on the ERG and EOG, the b-wave amplitude loss was roughly proportional to the area of retina visibly affected in indirect ophthalmoscopy. One patient had a nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment. CONCLUSIONS: Middle retinal function, as reflected in the b-wave amplitude, and retinal pigment epithelial function, as reflected in the L/D ratio, were both compromised in CMV retinitis, but the effect on function in the two layers of the retina appeared independent because there was no significant correlation between the L/D ratio and b-wave amplitude. The decrease in L/D ratio was not secondary to loss of photoreceptor function and probably represents a dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium because there was no significant correlation between a-wave amplitude, which was normal in most cases, and L/D ratio. The inner retinal pathology of CMV retinitis is visible clinically and was associated with decreases in b-wave amplitude in this and previous studies. The significant independent retinal pigment epithelial dysfunction demonstrated in this study may be an important predisposing factor to retinal detachment in CMV retinitis.
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