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11/760. Resolution of disseminated molluscum contagiosum with Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in patients with AIDS.

    molluscum contagiosum (MC), a cutaneous infection caused by a dna virus belonging to the poxvirus group, affects about 5-10% of patients with HIV disease, often showing extensive, severe lesions, unresponsive to therapy [1]. During the follow-up of three patients with AIDS for MC recalcitrant to therapy, we noted their cutaneous lesions cleared 5-6 months after they had begun Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). This therapy includes an hiv protease inhibitor (indinavir) and two reverse transcriptase inhibitors [2, 3].
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12/760. corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum: an easily missed respiratory pathogen in HIV-infected patients.

    Despite being a well-known respiratory pathogen for immunocompromised patients, corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum has uncommonly been reported to occur in persons with infection attributable to HIV virus. We report three cases of respiratory tract infection attributable to C. pseudodiphtheriticum in HIV-infected patients and review the four previous cases from the medical literature. All of them were male with a median cd4 lymphocyte count of 110 cells/mm3 (range, 18-198/mm3); five of the seven cases occurred in persons for whom AIDS was diagnosed previously. The onset of symptomatology was usually acute and the most common radiographic appearance was alveolar infiltrate (six patients) with cavitation (two patients) and pleural effusion (two patients). In five of the seven cases, C. pseudodiphtheriticum was isolated from bronchoscopic samples and in the remaining two cases was recovered from lung biopsy (one patient) and sputum (one patient). In the three patients reported herein and in one previous case from the medical literature, quantitative culturing of bronchoscopic samples obtained through either bronchoalveolar lavage or protected brush catheter procedures yielded more than 10(3) CFU/mL. All the strains tested were susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin. Resistance to macrolides was common. Recovery was observed in six of the seven patients. C. pseudodiphtheriticum should be regarded as a potential respiratory pathogen in HIV-infected patients. This infection presents late in the course of HIV disease and it seems to respond well to appropriate antibiotic treatment in most of the cases. This easily overlooked pathogen should be added to the list of organisms implicated in respiratory tract infections in this population.
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13/760. Emergency surgery for generalized peritonitis caused by cytomegalovirus colitis in a patient with AIDS.

    Cytomegalovirus infection of the colon is a late and severe complication in human immunodeficiency virus patients. Despite availability of medical treatment, occasional life-saving emergency surgery must be performed. The controversial surgical aspects of treatment are discussed based upon an unusual case of aseptic generalized peritonitis without perforation. The feasibility and value of limited resection are emphasized.
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14/760. Resolution of recalcitrant hand warts in an HIV-infected patient treated with potent antiretroviral therapy.

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-related cutaneous manifestations occur with increased frequency and severity among HIV-infected persons. In this report, we describe an HIV-infected man with persistent, severe cutaneous hand warts that did not respond to multiple therapies, including liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, topical dinitrochlorobenzene, topical podophyllin, and intralesional interferon-alfa injections. Approximately 1 year after starting a potent protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral regimen, the patient's recalcitrant cutaneous warts markedly diminished in size, even though the patient did not receive any specific therapy for the warts after starting aggressive antiretroviral therapy. The patient continued on a potent protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral regimen and, approximately 2 years later, the warts completely resolved. Our patient's dramatic clinical improvement of cutaneous HPV infection that followed protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy provides a clear-cut example that protease inhibitor-containing combination antiretroviral therapy can produce significant clinical benefit.
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15/760. Impact of cerebrospinal fluid PCR on the management of HIV-infected patients with varicella-zoster virus infection of the central nervous system.

    Over a 2 year period, we identified five HIV-infected patients who presented with central nervous system infection caused by varicella-zoster virus, three with myelitits, and two with meningoencephalitis. All five patients were profoundly immunocompromised. Clinical presentation of these patients overlapped to a significant extent with diseases caused by other viruses, e.g. CMV. Indeed, in one case, a dual infection with CMV was diagnosed, but the respective role of each virus was ascertained by in situ hybridisation. At the time of CNS involvement, only one patient had active VZV cutaneous lesions, which were instrumental in diagnosing her condition. In contrast, PCR for VZV dna in the CSF was helpful in making a diagnosis in the four other cases, one of which was confirmed by a post mortem. Of these five patients, two patients developed VZV disease while receiving oral acyclovir and had foscarnet treatment initiated when MRI demonstrated widespread lesions. They did not respond to antiviral therapy. The three other patients had intravenous acyclovir initiated at a time when no or limited parenchymal lesions were observed by MRI. Two of these three patients had VZV infection diagnosed solely on the basis of PCR: all three responded to treatment. Our data show that reactivation of VZV involving the central nervous system occurs frequently in the absence of cutaneous lesions. PCR of cerebrospinal fluid may help in making an early diagnosis which is probably a prerequisite for successful treatment of VZV infection of the CNS.
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16/760. Bilateral trochlear nerve palsy associated with cryptococcal meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    This is the report of a case of bilateral trochlear nerve palsy secondary to cryptococcal meningitis in a 34-year-old woman with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Based on clinical and neuroradiologic findings, it is concluded that in the present case, a postinflammatory shrinking of the arachnoid has stretched the fourth cranial nerves at their point of emergence from the dorsal surface of the brainstem.
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17/760. Progression of cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report.

    We report an AIDS patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis that developed from an early minor lesion and progressed to extended involvement of the retina and severe deterioration of vision due to poor compliance with ganciclovir treatment. A 33-year-old man was known to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for eight months. The patient had no complaint of visual symptoms. A routine eye examination revealed his visual acuity to be 6/6 in both eyes. The dilated eye fundus examination using indirect ophthalmoscopy disclosed a localized white yellowish granular lesion in the peripheral retina of the right eye and a completely normal left eye. CMV retinitis with initial manifestation in the right eye was diagnosed. Due to incomplete treatment with ganciclovir, the retinal lesion rapidly enlarged and extended to the posterior pole, with eventual destruction of the nerve fiber layer and optic disc. The visual acuity of right eye dropped from 6/6 to 1/60 within six months. This case report indicates the importance of early, dilated eye fundus examination and recognition of early CMV retinitis in order to salvage visual function in AIDS patients. Completion of the anti-CMV treatment course in halting the progression of CMV retinitis is also emphasized.
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ranking = 2.5
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18/760. A case study: the use of cidofovir for the management of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic infection of the brain in advanced stages of AIDS. PML is caused by the jc virus, which leads to a decline in mental acuity and motor functions over a period of weeks or months. Currently, there is no treatment or cure for PML. Cidofovir, an antiviral agent, at the standard dosages for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) was implemented in the treatment and management of a 35-year-old, newly diagnosed AIDS, White male with PML. The patient presented with impaired motor functions of the left upper and lower extremities, which resulted in hemiparalysis and hemiparesis. The use of cidofovir infusions at standard recommendations for treatment and management of CMV has resulted in improvement and some resolution of the patient's paralysis and paresthesia. The patient has remained on the cidofovir for more than a year, with no signs of advancement of his PML or AIDS. Further investigation and extensive clinical trials are needed in the treatment and management of PML with the use of cidofovir.
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19/760. Successful treatment of spleen tuberculosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may act as a cofactor that accelerates the clinical course of HIV infection, and, indeed, HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis have a reduced survival rate compared to those without tuberculosis. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients can be difficult because of nonspecific symptoms and the time required for the identification of mycobacteria by means of culture techniques. Recently, antiretroviral combination therapies have improved the outcome of several acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated conditions. Unfortunately, the use of antiretroviral therapy for patients coinfected with HIV and mycobacterium tuberculosis is still to be fully evaluated. The complexity of side-effects due to antituberculosis medication and drug interaction represent important issues and combining an effective anti-HIV treatment with antituberculosis therapy is still a clinical challenge. We discuss here a case of spleen tuberculosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient who had a successful response after a diagnostic splenectomy and medical treatment that included classical antituberculosis treatment associated with antiretroviral therapy without protease inhibitors.
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20/760. bk virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: The two widely spread human polyomaviruses, bk virus (BKV) and jc virus (JCV) establish latency in the urinary tract, and can be reactivated in AIDS. JCV might cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, but although up to 60% of AIDS patients excrete BKV in the urine there have been few reports of BKV-related renal and/or neurological disease in AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To report on an AIDS patient with progressive renal and neurological symptoms involving the retina. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Venhalsan, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, sweden. methods: The brain, eye tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed by nested PCR for polyoma-virus dna. Macroscopical and microscopical examination were performed of the kidney and brain post mortem. Immunohistochemical stainings for the two BKV proteins, the VP1 and the agnoprotein, were performed on autopsy material and virus infected tissue culture cells. RESULTS: BKV could be demonstrated in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eye tissues, kidneys and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: During 6 years, approximately 400 cerebrospinal fluid samples from immunosuppressed individuals with neurological symptoms have been investigated by PCR for the presence of polyomaviruses. BKV dna has, so far, only been found in the case reported here. Although reports of BKV infections in the nervous system are rare, there is now evidence for its occurrence in immunocompromised patients and the diagnosis should be considered in such patients with neurological symptoms and signs of renal disease. The diagnosis is simple to verify and is important to establish.
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ranking = 5
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