Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/19. Humeroradial synostosis, ulnar aplasia and oligodactyly, with contralateral amelia, in a child with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Humeral "bifurcation" due to humeroradial synostosis, and amelia are both very rare limb anomalies. We report on a Canadian. Aboriginal boy with both these limb deficiencies. The family history was unremarkable, but he was exposed prenatally to cocaine at the time of limb development. Humeroradial synostosis with ulnar aplasia has been reported by several authors. The majority of cases are unilateral. When both upper limbs arms are involved, cases with oligodactyly often have asymmetrical limb deficiencies and have all been sporadic to date. Some appear to represent cases of the femur-fibula-ulna or FFU complex. Affected individuals with normal hands usually have symmetrical defects and show an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Limb deficiencies have been reported in several infants exposed prenatally to cocaine and have been inducible in animal models. Most are terminal transverse defects or deficiencies of middle digits. When more than one limb is involved, the defects are usually asymmetric. Our case appears to be one of the most severely affected children reported to date.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/19. Foetal kidney maldevelopment in maternal use of angiotensin ii type I receptor antagonists.

    We report renal lesions observed in a foetus exposed throughout pregnancy to angiotensin ii type I (AT 1) receptor antagonists. The mother suffered from essential hypertension and was treated with Cozaar (losartan 50 mg). autopsy examination of the foetus revealed severe renal lesions, including tubular dysgenesis, hypertrophy of the endothelial and medial cells lining the arterial and arteriolar walls, hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and poorly developed vasa recta. Similar lesions have already been observed in foetuses of women treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme antagonists and also in foetuses and neonates of animals undergoing experimental blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. The purpose of this report is to describe structural lesions observed in the kidneys, and, particularly, vascular lesions. Our results suggest that the use of AT 1 receptor antagonists during pregnancy may have a severe deleterious effect on kidney development in the foetus.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/19. Limb reduction defects in humans associated with prenatal isotretinoin exposure.

    Retinoic acid has long been used to induce limb reductions defects in experimental animal studies. No limb malformations, however, have been reported among malformed retinoic acid-exposed human fetuses from case reports or epidemiologic studies. We report a child and a fetus with limb reduction malformations following maternal use of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) during the first trimester of pregnancy. The child had a unilaterally absent clavicle and nearly absent scapula, with a short humerus and short, synostotic forearm bones. He also had ventriculomegaly and developmental delay, minor dysmorphic facial features, and a short sternum with a sterno-umbilical raphe. The fetus had a unilaterally absent thumb with normal proximal bony structures. Other findings included hydrocephalus, craniofacial anomalies, thymic agenesis, supracristal ventricular septal defect, single umbilical artery, anal and vaginal atresia, and urethral agenesis with dysplastic, multicystic kidneys. Although the limb malformations were quite dissimilar, a number of anomalies that are frequently found among isotretinoin-exposed fetuses/infants were present in both cases. This increases the probability that retinoic acid caused these limb defects, but a causal association cannot be conclusively drawn on the basis of these two retrospective case reports.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/19. Cyclopia and maternal ingestion of salicylates.

    salicylates are teratogens in animals, but their teratogenicity in man remains controverted. The possibility that massive oral intake in the first 3 months of pregnancy may induce malformations has not been eliminated. We report a second case of cyclopia associated with daily maternal ingestion of up to 4 g of acetylsalicylic acid in the first trimester.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/19. Successful pregnancy following continuous treatment with combination chemotherapy before conception and throughout pregnancy.

    A 21-year-old woman with diffuse histiocytic lymphoma received combination chemotherapy continuously for 16 months before conception and throughout pregnancy. procarbazine and BCNU were given for 5 months before conception and throughout the first and second trimesters, and streptozotocin was given throughout the third trimester. A male infant who was phenotypically and genotypically normal was delivered. The authors reviewed the literature regarding chemotherapeutic agents given during the first trimester of pregnancy. Although most chemotherapeutic agents are teratogenic in the animal model, the incidence of teratogenicity of chemotherapeutic agents given to humans in the first trimester of pregnancy is 12.7%. This represents a fivefold increase in teratogenicity. As yet the administration of chemotherapeutic agents in the second and third trimesters has not resulted in teratogenicity. This information may help the physician when deciding whether to treat pregnant patients with chemotherapeutic agents during the first trimester or whether to continue treatment when the patient has become pregnant while receiving these agents.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/19. Jejunal atresia associated with Cafergot ingestion during pregnancy.

    Fetal vascular accidents have been suggested as one cause for jejunal atresia due to in utero interruption of the superior mesenteric arterial supply to the intestines. Experimental studies support this hypothesis, and ergotamine has been shown to be a teratogen in experimental animals as a consequence of its vasoconstrictive action. We report the occurrence of intrauterine growth retardation and jejunal atresia in an offspring of a woman who also experienced four spontaneous abortions. During each of six pregnancies, the mother had taken as many as eight Cafergot tablets daily. We raise the hypothesis that Cafergot (1 mg ergotamine tartrate and 100 mg caffeine) might represent a vascular disruptive teratogenic agent during pregnancy. This hypothesis is supported by the clinical association of nonduodenal intestinal atresia with other defects that have a disruptive vascular etiology.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/19. azathioprine teratogenicity: review of the literature and case report.

    An infant born with preaxial polydactyly to a mother taking azathioprine throughout pregnancy is described. Experimental studies in animals reveal a teratogenic role for azathioprine and its main metabolite, 6-mercaptopurine. The skeletal system appears to be the primary tissue target for such action of these drugs. Although no direct cause-effect relationship can be established from the single case presented, the similarity of this anomaly to experimental azathioprine teratogenesis suggests the necessity for further surveillance.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/19. Angel dust: possible effects on the fetus.

    A case report of an infant whose mother used phencyclidine (PCP, "angel dust") during pregnancy is presented. As a neonate, the infant showed abnormal behavior and an unusual appearance, and later, spastic quadriparesis. Based on previous animal studies, it is likely that this infant had prolonged exposure to PCP as a fetus. His abnormal neonatal behavior was consistent with previously reported effects of this drug. The relationship between his exposure to PCP and his dysmorphology and spasticity remains speculative. It is suggested that clinicians be alert to further cases of these associations.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/19. Benzodiazepine amplification of valproate teratogenic effects in children of mothers with absence epilepsy.

    Valproate (VPA) is one of the most frequently used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Concern has recently been raised regarding VPA medication during pregnancy and teratogenic effects in the offspring. Both neural tube defects (5, 18, 34) and a constellation of signs termed the fetal valproate syndrome (1, 12) have been reported. benzodiazepines (BZDs) are also widely used and sometimes as effective adjunctives in AED therapy. Both VPA and BZD have close connections to GABA transmission. Recently, clinical and epidemiological human studies (26, 27, 37, 39), supported by animal studies (17, 24, 40), have indicated that BZDs may act as human teratogens. We report on 7 children with congenital malformations, dysmorphism and abnormal neurological signs from birth. The mothers had well controlled primary generalized absence epilepsy without major seizures during pregnancy. Five children had been exposed to VPA monotherapy and two children to VPA and BZD combined during the first trimester. Those two infants had myelomeningoceles and the most pronounced dysmorphism in the group. We propose that these observations indicate a possible amplifying action of BZDs on VPA teratogenicity. Unrecognized BZD use during pregnancies exposed to VPA may be of importance when estimating the teratogenic risks of VPA therapy.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/19. Teratogenicity and carcinogenicity in a twin exposed in utero to cyclophosphamide.

    A 29-year-old pregnant woman diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia maintained remission with daily cyclophosphamide and intermittent prednisone treatment. She delivered a male twin with multiple congenital abnormalities who was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer at 11 years of age and stage III neuroblastoma at 14 years of age. The female twin was unaffected and has exhibited normal development to date. First trimester exposure to cyclophosphamide has been associated with major malformations. Metabolites of cyclophosphamide have been demonstrated to be teratogens and carcinogens in animals. Differences in placental or fetal hepatic cytochrome P-450 may account for the variability in response between the twins. In addition, disparity between the twins may be the result of differences in metabolite inactivating enzymes present either in fetal liver or placenta. The risk of second malignancies caused by alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide has been well documented in adults and children but to the best of our knowledge this is the first description of transplacental second cancer.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = animal
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Abnormalities, Drug-Induced'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.