Cases reported "Abnormalities, Multiple"

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1/29. Apparent cyclophosphamide (cytoxan) embryopathy: a distinct phenotype?

    cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating agent widely used in treating cancer and autoimmune disease. CP is classified as a pregnancy risk factor D drug and is teratogenic in animals, but population studies have not conclusively demonstrated teratogenicity in humans. Six isolated reports of prenatally exposed infants with various congenital anomalies exist, but to date no specific phenotype has been delineated. The purpose of this report is to document a new case of in utero CP exposure with multiple congenital anomalies and to establish an apparent CP embryopathy phenotype. The mother had systemic lupus erythematosus and cyclophosphamide exposure in the first trimester. She also took nifedipine, atenolol, clonidine, prednisone, aspirin, and potassium chloride throughout pregnancy. The infant had growth retardation and multiple anomalies including microbrachycephaly, coronal craniosynostosis, hypotelorism, shallow orbits, proptosis, blepharophimosis, small, abnormal ears, unilateral preauricular pit, broad, flat nasal bridge, microstomia, high-arched palate, micrognathia, preaxial upper limb and postaxial lower limb defects consisting of hypoplastic thumbs, and bilateral absence of the 4th and 5th toes. chromosomes were apparently normal. The reported cases of in utero exposure to cyclosposphamide shared the following manifestations with our patient: growth deficiency, developmental delay, craniosynostosis, blepharophimosis, flat nasal bridge, abnormal ears, and distal limb defects including hypoplastic thumbs and oligodactyly. We conclude that (a) cyclophosphamide is a human teratogen, (b) a distinct phenotype exists, and (c) the safety of CP in pregnancy is in serious question.
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2/29. central nervous system in twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence with special reference to examination of the brain in acardius anceps.

    The twin-reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence, or acardia, is the most severe complication in monozygotic twinning. Although more than 400 cases with TRAP sequence were reported since 1533, thorough investigations of the brain in those cases with a rudimentary head remained infrequent. We report a TRAP sequence with microcephaly and a severely rudimentary brain anlage. Neuropathologic examination clearly demonstrated two types of change: (1) developmental arrest of brain at the prosencephalic stage (holoprosencephaly), and (2) hypoxic damage to the holospheric brain mantle with cystic change (hydranencephaly). With reference to previous studies in experimental animals showing that lack of oxygen during early embryogenesis can induce severe disruptions of head-brain and heart formation, it is concluded that oxygen deficiency due to TRAP may be responsible not only for the encephaloclastic changes in the acardius anceps, but for the developmental arrest of the brain cases as well. This would make it unnecessary to postulate additional primary causes such as asymmetric zygote cleavage (Schwalbe, '07) for the maldevelopment.
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3/29. High maternal fever during gestation and severe congenital limb disruptions.

    Hyperthermia is defined as a temperature of at least 1.5 degrees C over the normal core body temperature. It is a proven teratogen in animals and in humans. The type of defects induced by hyperthermia in experimental animals are: anencephaly/exencephaly, encephalocele, microphthalmia, arthrogryposis, abdominal wall defects, limb deficiencies, embryonic death, and resorption. In humans it has been observed that infants prenatally exposed to hyperthermia presented with spina bifida, encephalocele, microphthalmia, micrognathia, external ear anomalies, cardiac defects, hypospadias, gastrointestinal defects, cleft lip and/or cleft palate, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, hirschsprung disease, mobius syndrome, oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum, and spontaneous abortions. We describe an additional case with severe limb deficiencies whose mother had fever over 39 degrees C for 2 days in the second and in the fourth month of amenorrhoea. We conclude that, based on the degree of development of the humeri and the femora and the type of limb deficiencies, this case presents a disruption that most probably occurred in the fourth month of gestation.
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4/29. Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome as a human example for accelerated cochlear nerve degeneration.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that includes microcephaly, severe mental retardation, and multiple congenital anomalies. Otologic findings are usually limited to descriptions of the auricles. PATIENT AND methods: The authors report inner ear histopathologic findings of a deceased 13-year-old patient with COFS. A histologic study of the inner ear in COFS syndrome has not yet been described. This patient was documented as having a profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss at the age of 2 years. RESULTS: Histologic evaluation revealed accelerated neural and neuronal degeneration at the cochlear and retrocochlear levels. Remaining myelinated nerve fibers, counted in the spiral lamina, had degenerated by up to 97% when compared with normal innervation densities. Afferent nerve fibers innervating inner hair cells were completely absent, whereas medial efferent fibers to outer hair cells were found. vestibular nerve fibers were less affected. CONCLUSION: The authors report inner ear findings that differ from animal models of primary cochlear neural degeneration and that resemble the pattern of hereditary cochlear nerve degeneration reported in Friedreich's ataxia.
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5/29. Fetal akinesia deformation sequence: behavioral development in a case of congenital myopathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor behavioral development in a fetus affected by the Pena-Shokeir phenotype due to fetal akinesia deformation sequence of myogenic origin. methods: Fetal behavioral development was studied sonographically in a fetus suspected of having fetal akinesia deformation sequence, between 15 and 35 weeks of gestation at 1-4-week intervals. RESULTS: Fetal body movements were quantitatively and qualitatively abnormal from 28 weeks onwards. Behavioral deterioration coincided with the observation of structural anomalies such as club feet. fetal heart rate and its variation remained within normal limits and showed normal ultradian cyclicity, but the temporal linkage between body movements and heart rate pattern worsened with advancing gestation. Breathing movements, although present until the end of pregnancy, became increasingly shallow. CONCLUSION: Our results provide sound evidence that the trajectory of behavioral development with fetal akinesia deformation sequence, which has been hypothesized to occur in man exclusively on the basis of retrospective analyses and animal experiments, does indeed take place.
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6/29. Histopathology and molecular genetics of hearing loss in the human.

    hearing loss is among the most common disabilities of man. It has been estimated that over 70 million individuals in the world are hearing impaired with pure tone averages greater than 55 dB. A genetic etiology is thought to be responsible for over half of early onset hearing loss and at least one third of late onset hearing loss. In this review, examples of the histopathology of the inner ear in known genetic syndromes in the human will be presented in order to provide a structural basis for understanding molecular mechanisms of development and maintenance in the inner ear, and to serve the essential function of validating the applicability of animal genetic models of hearing loss to the human condition.
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7/29. PAGOD syndrome: eighth case and comparison to animal models of congenital vitamin a deficiency.

    We observed a 46, XY infant with atrophy of the optic nerve, complex congenital heart disease including a double outlet right ventricle, hypoplasia of the right pulmonary artery and lung, eventration of the diaphragm, and ambiguous genitalia. The baby died of cardiac arrhythmias at 204 days. The pattern of malformations was compatible with pulmonary tract and pulmonary artery, agonadism, omphalocele, diaphragmatic defect, and dextrocardia (PAGOD) syndrome. The condition may resemble the malformation complex associated with developmental deficiency of vitamin A or retinoic acid, as described in animal models.
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8/29. Humeroradial synostosis, ulnar aplasia and oligodactyly, with contralateral amelia, in a child with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Humeral "bifurcation" due to humeroradial synostosis, and amelia are both very rare limb anomalies. We report on a Canadian. Aboriginal boy with both these limb deficiencies. The family history was unremarkable, but he was exposed prenatally to cocaine at the time of limb development. Humeroradial synostosis with ulnar aplasia has been reported by several authors. The majority of cases are unilateral. When both upper limbs arms are involved, cases with oligodactyly often have asymmetrical limb deficiencies and have all been sporadic to date. Some appear to represent cases of the femur-fibula-ulna or FFU complex. Affected individuals with normal hands usually have symmetrical defects and show an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Limb deficiencies have been reported in several infants exposed prenatally to cocaine and have been inducible in animal models. Most are terminal transverse defects or deficiencies of middle digits. When more than one limb is involved, the defects are usually asymmetric. Our case appears to be one of the most severely affected children reported to date.
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9/29. Multiple coexistent dysraphic pathologies.

    INTRODUCTION: Four distinct dysraphic anomalies were observed in a single child. While combinations of such anomalies are well recognised, quadruple dysraphic pathology, nevertheless, is extremely uncommon. To our knowledge, no previous cases have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present the management of a child with a concurrent segmental meningocele, a type-1 split cord malformation (SCM) associated with hemivertebrae, lipomyelomeningoceles in each hemicord of the SCM and a terminal myelocystocele, and we review the literature on potential mechanisms of dysmorphogenesis. DISCUSSION: Existing embryologic hypotheses for the dysraphic spectrum lack experimental evidence and studies in animal models. This case challenges the existing hypotheses and illustrates our incomplete understanding of human terminal spinal cord embryogenesis. Further studies on the morphogenetic basis for these anomalies are required.
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10/29. Caudal regression syndrome--case report and review of literature.

    Caudal regression syndrome is a rare disorder of distal spinal segments affecting the development of the spinal cord, with attendant sequelae. intelligence is preserved. The exact etiology is elusive, though maternal diabetes, genetic factors, and hypoperfusion might play roles. Recently, the role of teratogens has been studied in animal models. Treatment is difficult, multidisciplinary, and largely supportive. Lower limb deformities with sensory and motor loss and neurogenic bladder call for intensive and long-term attention.
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