Cases reported "Abnormalities, Multiple"

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1/812. Defective sexual development in an infant with 46, XY, der(9)t(8;9)(q23.1;p23)mat.

    We report on a male infant with ambiguous genitalia (scrotal hypospadias, sinus urogenitalis) trisomic for 8q23-ter and monosomic for 9p23-ter, who shared craniofacial and other abnormalities with either phenotype. Gonadal histology was nearly normal for age. Normal endocrinological findings and exclusion of mutations in SRY, androgen receptor and alpha-reductase genes point to supplementary gene(s) located in 9p2305-ter, haplo-insufficiency (by deletion) of which is expected to cause defective male morphogenesis. CONCLUSION: This observation lends further support to the hypothesis that genetic factors are located at 9p23-ter which are involved in normal sex determination.
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2/812. Autosomal dominant secundum atrial septal defect with various cardiac and noncardiac defects: a new midline disorder.

    We report on a Lebanese family in which 12 persons had an atrial septal defect and various cardiac and noncardiac anomalies. Cardiac anomalies are left axis deviation of QRS, right bundle branch block, atrial fibrillation, wolff-parkinson-white syndrome, nodal atrioventricular rhythm, aortic stenosis, pulmonic valve stenosis, mitral stenosis (lutembacher syndrome), and low implantation of the tricuspid valve (Ebstein disease). Noncardiac abnormalities consisted specially of the presence of hypertelorism, cleft lip, and pectus excavatum. This combination appears to constitute a hitherto undescribed autosomal dominant midline disorder of the heart and upper half of the body with almost full penetrance and variable expressivity. The mutation does not map to any known locus involved in atrial septal defect or conduction block.
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3/812. The exercise test in andersen syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: andersen syndrome is a rare form of periodic paralysis (PP) associated with dysmorphic features and potentially fatal cardiac dysrhythmias. To date, no electrodiagnostic abnormalities have been reported that can be used to confirm the presence of PP in this condition. OBJECTIVES: To determine if the exercise test could be used to confirm the diagnosis of PP in andersen syndrome. To evaluate the exercise test as a means to assess neuromuscular status during treatment. methods: We performed the exercise test on 2 patients with andersen syndrome. In 1 patient, we used a modified version of the test to document responsiveness to treatment with tocainide. RESULTS: Studies in both patients demonstrated a progressive decline in the compound muscle action potential amplitude after exercise that was characteristic of the phenomenon seen in other forms of PP. In 1 patient, improvement in interattack strength and a reduction in the number of attacks of weakness correlated with improvement in the test results. CONCLUSIONS: Our cases demonstrate that the exercise test can confirm the diagnosis of PP in andersen syndrome. A modified version of exercise testing may also be considered as an objective method for documenting treatment responses in PP.
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4/812. Normal expression of the fanconi anemia proteins FAA and FAC and sensitivity to mitomycin C in two patients with Seckel syndrome.

    Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The classical presentation includes pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, and characteristic facial appearance. There have been several reports of associated hematological abnormalities and chromosomal breakage, findings suggestive of fanconi anemia (FA). We tested for these findings in two Arabic patients with this syndrome. We compared the growth profile of lymphoblastoid cells from our patients and their parents with the FA group A cell line HSC72 in the presence and absence of mitomycin C (MMC). By Western analysis, we also determined the expression of FAA and FAC, two FA disease gene products that together account for approximately 80% of FA. Unlike HSC72 cells, cells from the patients were resistant to MMC, and both FAA and FAC proteins were expressed at similar levels in all cell lines. There is an increasing recognition of clinical variability and perhaps genetic heterogeneity in Seckel syndrome. Our results demonstrate that cross-link sensitivity comparable to FA is not a uniform finding in patients with Seckel syndrome.
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5/812. tetralogy of fallot with non-confluent pulmonary arteries and aortopulmonary septal defect.

    aortopulmonary septal defect and tetralogy of fallot is a rare combination. We report a case of tetralogy of fallot, non-confluent pulmonary arteries with the left arising from the arterial duct, and a large aortopulmonary septal defect diagnosed by echocardiogram and confirmed by cardiac catheterization.
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6/812. siblings with a syndrome of hydrocephalus with patent aqueduct, growth retardation and associated anomalies.

    We report on male siblings with hydrocephalus with associated abnormalities including growth retardation, midline cleft palate and bilateral 'fisting' of the hands, providing evidence for a familial syndrome of hydrocephalus and associated anomalies.
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7/812. Prenatal findings in trisomy 16q of paternal origin.

    A 34-year-old pregnant woman was referred at 30 weeks of gestation with suspected fetal congenital heart disease. On prenatal ultrasound the following anomalies were detected: intra-uterine growth retardation, micrognathia, coarctation of the aorta with ventricular and atrial septal defects, ambiguous external genitalia, and clinodactyly of one hand with adducted thumb. Prenatal karyotyping was offered but refused by the patient. The fetus was delivered by Caesarean section due to fetal distress at 36 weeks of gestation. The neonate, weighing 2150 g was transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit, where he died 10 days later. The karyotype from peripheral blood lymphocytes was 46,XY der(20)t(16;20)(q12.1;p13)pat. The maternal karyotype was unremarkable, whereas the father had the translocation t(16;20)(q12.1;p13). Necropsy confirmed all the prenatal findings. These are discussed together with the implications of the chromosomal diagnosis and the pertinent literature is reviewed.
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8/812. Tibial agenesis, femoral duplication, and caudal midline anomalies.

    Tibial agenesis with femoral duplication (Gollop-Wolfgang complex) and cloacal exstrophy are each rare malformations. Thus, their concurrence in an individual is an extremely rare event. We report on a patient born with distal duplication of the right femur, agenesis of the right tibia and hallux, cloacal exstrophy, and sacral defects. review of the small group of cases reported with femoral duplication and tibial agenesis in association with caudal midline defects demonstrated a pattern of anomalies that while varying in presentation and severity was quite specific. We postulate that this disorder is related to misexpression of one or more distal HOX genes, potentially HOX10 or HOX11, leading to abnormal induction and proliferation of caudal mesenchyme.
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9/812. X-linked mental retardation syndrome with seizures, hypogammaglobulinemia, and progressive gait disturbance is regionally mapped between xq21.33 and Xq23.

    We identified a family with three males in two generations with moderate mental retardation. The two oldest were first cousins whose mothers were sisters. The third affected was a grandson through a daughter of one of the sisters, strongly suggesting X- linked inheritance. The affected males had prominent glabella, synophrys, prognathism, generalized hirsutism, and bilateral single palmar creases. All developed seizures in childhood. The two oldest have had a slow deterioration in neurological status with poor gait and balance and progressive weakness. No deterioration in their mental status has been observed. The oldest had cerebellar atrophy confirmed on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain and prolonged nerve conduction velocity. Two of the males had hypogammaglobulinemia (IgA deficient). Two-point linkage analysis using 27 microsatellite markers on the x chromosome resulted in a maximum lod score of 2.23 at straight theta = 0 for locus DSX101. Recombination was observed at locus DSX1170 in Xq21.33 and locus DXS8067 in Xq23. We conclude that this family represents an X-linked disorder associated with a recognizable phenotype, progressive neurological deterioration, and variable hypogammaglobulinemia. The gene appears to lie between Xq21.33 and Xq23.
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10/812. Miller-Dieker syndrome and trisomy 5p in a child carrying a derivative chromosome with a microdeletion in 17p13.3 telomeric to the LIS1 and the D17S379 loci.

    trisomy 5p and Miller-Dieker syndromes frequently are the result of unbalanced segregations of reciprocal translocations of chromosomes 5 and 17 with other autosomes. The critical regions for the expression of the mentioned syndromes have been mapped to 5p13-->pter, and 17p13.3-->pter. In this report, we describe an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation, postnatal growth deficiency, generalized muscular hypotonia, seizures, microcephaly, cortical atrophy, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, cerebral ventriculomegaly, facial anomalies, patent ductus arteriosus, pectus excavatum, long fingers, and bilateral talipes equinovarus caused by the presence of a 46,XX,der(17)t(5;17)(p13.1;p13.3)mat chromosome complement. Cytogenetic studies of the family confirmed a balanced reciprocal translocation (5;17)(p13.1;p13.3) in her mother, maternal grandfather, maternal aunt, and a female first cousin. fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on the mother and the proposita using three probes, which map to distal 17p, confirmed the reciprocal translocation in the mother and a terminal deletion in the patient, which resulted in the retention of LIS1 and D17S379 loci and deletion of the 17p telomere. These findings and the phenotype of the proposita, strongly suggest that genes telomeric to LIS1 and locus D17S379 are involved in many clinical findings, including the minor facial anomalies of the Miller-Dieker syndrome.
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