Cases reported "Abnormalities, Multiple"

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1/193. Musculoskeletal manifestations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome.

    The Antley-Bixler syndrome is a rare disorder with many musculoskeletal anomalies that demand orthopedic assessment. The syndrome includes skeletal, craniofacial, and urogenital anomalies. The most common skeletal deformities are radiohumeral synostosis, craniosynostosis, multiple joint contractures, and arachnodactyly. Other orthopedic manifestations that may occur are femoral bowing, ulnar bowing, camptodactyly, synostoses of carpal and tarsal bones, clubfoot, vertebral body anomalies, perinatal fractures, and advanced skeletal age. The inheritance pattern is thought to be autosomal recessive. A patient with this syndrome is described, which is the 18th of 24 reports published in the world literature. This case is compared with the other reported cases.
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2/193. Anterior segment anomalies of the eye associated with multiple skeletal abnormalities and early lethality: confirmation of an autosomal recessive syndrome.

    We report two sibs from a complexly consanguineous family with joint contractures, skeletal abnormalities, anterior segment anomalies of the eye and early lethality. The features of these sibs are similar to the features of the sibs reported by Al-Gazali et al. (Clin Dysmorphol 3: 238-244, 1994). This report confirms the identity of this new autosomal recessive syndrome.
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3/193. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia associated with respiratory-chain defects.

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasias are congenital disorders of brain morphogenesis which include such diverse etiologies as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1, cerebromuscular dystrophies (walker-warburg syndrome, Fukuyama syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease) and at least two types of autosomal recessive neurodegenerations known as pontocerebellar hypoplasia type I and II. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 is a lethal phenotype and clinical features include congenital contractures, respiratory insufficiency, central and peripheral motor dysfunction and spinal anterior horn degeneration. Type 2 is characterized by progressive microcephaly, extrapyramidal dyskinesia and normal spinal cord findings. In this paper, we describe a girl, born at 33 weeks of gestation, presenting with respiratory insufficiency and multiple contractures. MRI scan of the brain demonstrated pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cortical and diffuse periventricular white matter abnormalities. Postmortem examination showed pontocerebellar hypoplasia with extensive gliosis of the periventricular white matter and of the basal ganglia with normal spinal cord findings. histology of skeletal muscle was normal. Biochemical analysis demonstrated multiple deficiencies of respiratory chain enzymes in skin fibroblasts. This case demonstrates a lethal phenotype of pontocerebellar hypoplasia without spinal cord abnormalities associated with a respiratory-chain disorder. The diagnostic workup in a patient whose brain image shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia should include a search for respiratory-chain impairment.
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4/193. Geleophysic dysplasia: 7-year follow-up study of a patient with an intermediate form.

    Geleophysic dysplasia (MIM *231050) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by short stature with short limbs, brachydactyly, joint contractures, and a good-natured facial appearance. Infiltration of liver and cardiac leaflets has been reported in some patients. Based on the clinical picture and the detection of lysosome-like inclusions in hepatocytes, tracheal mucosa, chondrocytes, and skin fibroblasts, the underlying cause of the conditions is considered to be a generalized lysosomal storage defect. We report on a new case born to consanguineous parents, first observed at age 8 months, and for whom a 7-year follow-up is available.
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5/193. A case of mirror hand deformity with a 17-year postoperative follow up. Case report.

    We present a case of a boy with a congenital upper-extremity malformation, including aplasia of the radius, double ulna, aplasia of the thumb, and polydactyly with a 17-year postoperative follow-up. The whole extremity, particularly the upper arm and shoulder girdle were hypoplastic. There was restriction of movement of the elbow and a flexion contracture of the wrist. At an age of 2 years he had three hypoplastic fingers resected and pollicisation of the third accessory finger. The thenar was reconstructed by interosseous muscle transfers and the flexion contracture corrected by a flexor tendon transfer. Preoperative electromyographic studies showed that he had two ulnar nerves with cross-innervation of the median nerve. Further improvements (including tendon transfer of the flexor carpi radialis) were made 16 years after the primary operation. At the age of 18 years the patient has satisfactory function of his left hand.
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6/193. costello syndrome with decreased glucose tolerance.

    We report a case of costello syndrome, which is an uncommon multisystemic condition with cutaneous manifestations on the palms and soles. In the literature there are 29 cases described, all the studies are published in the genetic literature with a few exceptions. We add a further case associated with impaired glucose tolerance. The diagnostic clinical signs are impressive, and highly characteristic. Cutaneous manifestations are: loose skin of the hands and feet "washer woman's hand", hyperkeratosis palmoplantaris, curly or sparse hair, acanthosis nigricans, papillomata nasi. Coarse, progeroid facial features with a bulbous nose, feeding difficulties in infancy, cardiac involvement with cardiomyopathy or conduction defect, and in our case impaired glucose tolerance also presented. Postnatal growth retardation, mental retardation, and a distinctive friendly personality is characteristic. Hyperextensible fingers with broad distal phalanges and joint contractures were observed, and peroneal hypertonicity required treatment by achilles tendon lengthening. The decreased glucose tolerance is interesting in the view of the acanthosis nigricans. No storage disease and no chromosomal abnormality were observed. Only in one case is a balanced translocation described in the literature.
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7/193. Familial pontocerebellar hypoplasia type I with anterior horn cell disease.

    We report the association of pontocerebellar hypoplasia and anterior horn cell disease in three female siblings. One child presented with the classical clinical and neuropathological features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia with associated anterior horn cell disease, described by Barth as pontocerebellar hypoplasia type I. This patient showed polyhydramnios, congenital contractures, respiratory insufficiency, hypotonia, areflexia, listlessness and myoclonic seizures. Postmortem examination revealed a loss of neurons and reactive gliosis in the pontocerebellum and in addition anterior horn cell atrophy resembling Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. Another sibling demonstrated the same clinical symptoms. However neuropathological findings showed evidence for pontocerebellar hypoplasia only. The third sibling was examined after induced fetal abortion because of prenatally diagnosed arthrogryposis. Anterior horn cell disease was obvious histologically whereas pontocerebellar hypoplasia could not be demonstrated due to cerebral autolysis. The similar clinical and neuropathological findings in the three reported siblings suggest a common genetic defect with different patterns of pontocerebellar hypoplasia and associated anterior horn cell disease. The gene defect of this rare disorder is still unknown. The 'survival motor neuron' gene of spinal muscular atrophy was not found in these three siblings.
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8/193. manitoba aboriginal kindred with original cerebro-oculo- facio-skeletal syndrome has a mutation in the cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) gene.

    Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome is a rapidly progressive neurological disorder leading to brain atrophy with calcification, cataracts, microcornea, optic atrophy, progressive joint contractures, and growth failure. cockayne syndrome (CS) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by low-to-normal birth weight; growth failure; brain dysmyelination with calcium deposits; cutaneous photosensitivity; pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, or both; and sensorineural hearing loss. CS cells are hypersensitive to UV radiation because of impaired nucleotide excision repair of UV radiation-induced damage in actively transcribed dna. The abnormalities in CS are associated with mutations in the CSA or CSB genes. In this report, we present evidence that two probands related to the manitoba Aboriginal population group within which COFS syndrome was originally reported have cellular phenotypes indistinguishable from those in CS cells. The identical mutation was detected in the CSB gene from both children with COFS syndrome and in both parents of one of the patients. This mutation was also detected in three other patients with COFS syndrome from the manitoba Aboriginal population group. These results suggest that CS and COFS syndrome share a common pathogenesis.
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9/193. Mosaic tetrasomy 8q: inverted duplication of 8q23.3qter in an analphoid marker.

    We observed an analphoid marker chromosome stable through cell division in a 16-year-old girl with developmental delay, short stature, limb contractures, and ovaries containing multiple cysts. She also developed myasthenia gravis at 15 years. The marker chromosome, present in 75% of metaphases (and in 90% of transformed lymphoblastoid cells), was C-band negative, and had no pan alpha-satellite sequences detectable by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The 8q origin of the marker was determined by use of subtelomeric probes and was confirmed by chromosome 8 painting probes. The marker was shown to be an inversion duplication of 8q when subtelomeric, telomeric, and c-myc FISH probes hybridized to both ends of the marker. The karyotype was 47,XX, inv dup(8)(qter--> q23.3::q23.3-->[neocen]-->qter), resulting in tetrasomy for 8q23.3qter. The parents had normal karyotypes. Centromeric proteins CENP-C and CENP-E were present, but alpha associated centromere protein CENP-B was absent at a position defining a neocentromere.
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10/193. Unilateral cryptophthalmia.

    Two patients had the variable clinical features of unilateral cryptophthalmia. A 5-month-old boy had isolated unilateral cryptophthalmia: a small boney orbit, deformed optic canal, and a small amorphous mass with no normal intraocular tissue representing the globe. No extraocular muscles or optic nerve were identified by B-scan ultrasound or by computed axial tomography x-ray techniques. The second patient, a 13-year-old girl, had unilateral cryptophthalmia, and numerous systemic abnormalities including a head circumference less than the third percentile, severe mental retardation, hypoplasia of the left side of the head, and a left facial cleft deformity. She also had contractures of hips, knees and ankles, and bilateral spasticity and jerky movements. The left boney orbit was contracted and deformed and contained a small amorphous tissue with no ocular detail, as revealed by B-scan and computed tomography scan.
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