Cases reported "Abnormalities, Multiple"

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11/193. Multiple pterygium syndrome: report of one case.

    Multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by multiple pterygium across the major joint and other associated anomalies. In this article, we report a male premature infant who was born with bizarre appearance: mask face with low set ear and micrognathia; pterygium of neck, antecubital, popliteal and intercrural area with four extremities flexion contracture. He was thought to be the first case report in taiwan. Besides, we review medical literature about this disease.
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12/193. Autosomal recessive multiple pterygium syndrome: a new variant?

    Multiple pterygium syndromes include at least 15 different entities characterized by multiple pterygia or webs of the skin and multiple congenital anomalies. We describe a female infant who presented with a distinct constellation of multiple anomalies consisting of pterygia of the inguinal, intercrural and popliteal areas, flexion contractures and arthrogryposis of some joints, craniofacial anomalies including ectropion, medial canthal web, blepharophimosis, hypoplasia of nose, oral and nasopharyngeal cavities, vocal cords and tongue, micrognathia, orolabial synechiae secondary to pterygia, low set ears, alopecia, sad and expressionless face, short neck, asymmetric nipples, anal stenosis, rectal polyp, hypoplastic labia majora, complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, pes equinovarus, bandlike web between feet, and absence of the nails and phalangeal-palmar creases. Radiological examination showed synostosis, absence or hypoplasia of metacarpal, metatarsal and phalangeal bones on feet and hands, and hypoplasia of pelvic bones and scapulae. This pattern of anomalies does not fit entirely any of the known multiple pterygium syndromes. Autosomal recessive inheritance is most likely due to the presence of three similarly affected siblings and normal parents.
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13/193. Pena-shokeir type I syndrome with thymic and systemic lymphoid hyperplasia: report of an autopsy case.

    We report a case of Pena-Shokeir type I syndrome in a female neonate who died of respiratory failure shortly after the birth at 32 weeks of gestation. In general appearance, she had apparent ocural hypertelorism, a depressed tip of the nose, low-set malformed ears, and microglossia in the head. There were severe contractures at the ankle, hand, fingers, and toes, and moderate contractures at the hip, shoulder, knee, and elbow. An autopsy analysis showed severe pulmonary hypoplasia and group atrophy of the skeletal muscle tissues. In addition to these findings which are well known characteristics of the infant with this syndrome, the thymus was markedly hyperplastic and lymph nodes were systemically swollen, especially the mesenteric ones which were visible and measured 2-5 mm in diameter. Histologically, the lymph nodes showed massive paracortical hyperplasia without apparent follicular structures, although no atypical lymphocytes were observed in both the thymus and lymph nodes. Immunohistochemically, proliferating lymphocytes seemed to be immature CD4 /CD8 T cells, suggesting the insufficiency of T-cell negative selection in the thymus. This report is the first case of Pena-Shokeir type I syndrome with T-lymphocytic disorder.
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14/193. cholesterol metabolsim defect associated with Conradi-Hunerman-Happle syndrome.

    We present a 6-week-old black girl with Conradi-Hunerman-Happle syndrome (CHS). The mother had no past medical history of illness, and the pregnancy progressed normally to a spontaneous vaginal delivery at 36 weeks. There was no known significant family history. A diagnosis of chondrodysplasia punctata was made at birth from physical examination and X-ray findings. On physical examination at 6 weeks, a koala face, a saddle nose, and a right-sided cataract were noted (Fig. 1a,b). There was unilateral left-sided ichthyosis well demarcated at the midline, with whorled brown fine scale following Blashko's lines on the patient's right side. Orthopedic complications were bilateral but were more pronounced on the left side. There was bilateral shortening of the humerus, with polydactyly of the right hand, arachnodactyly of the left fingers, bilateral clubbing, and mild contractures of the feet. x-rays showed multiple calcifications along the spine, proximal and distal femoral epiphysis, and proximal humeral epiphysis (Fig. 2). The patient was treated with emollients (aquaphor) twice daily with continuing improvement in ichthyosis. The clubbed feet were treated with splinting and the polydactyly was corrected by surgery. ophthalmology was to follow the patient for her right-sided cataract. At the patient's 4-month follow-up, the ichthyosis showed a marked improvement with some residual hypo- pigmented atrophoderma noted. The distribution remained unchanged. Biopsies taken of ichthyotic lesions showed compact hyperkeratosis and follicular plugging. Vesicles within the stratum corneum contained amorphous material (Fig. 3a,b). The granular cell layer was thickened with retained oval nuclei. The epidermal and adnexal epithelium were disorganized. Increased apoptotic/dyskeratotic keratinocytes were seen within the epidermis, but were most evident within the follicular epithelium. Ultrastructural studies showed saccular dilations of the acellular space within the stratum corneum. These acellular spaces were filled with unprocessed lamellated pleated sheets and vesicle complexes and processed lamellae. Dyskeratotic cells were seen within the stratum spinosum. Red blood cell (RBC) plasmalogen levels and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were within normal limits. plasma very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), including C26 : 0/C22 : 0 ratios, phytanic and pristanic acids, plasmalogen, and phytanic/pristanic ratios, trihydroxycholestanic acid (THCA) and dihydroxycholestanoic acid (DHCA) including their ratios, THCA/cholic acid and DHCA/chenodeoxycholic acid, and PUFAs including DHA were within normal limits. urine organic acids and piecolic acid were within normal limits. Despite these normal values, there was an increase in cholest-8(9)-en-3beta-ol of 6.8 microg/mL (normal, 0.01-0.10 microg/mL) and an increase in 8-dehydrocholesterol (5.1 microg/mL) (normal, <0.10 microg/mL).
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15/193. Interstitial 6q duplication in an adult male without growth delay or severe mental retardation.

    We report on a 28 year-old male with peculiar facies, distal joint contractures and other multiple congenital anomalies. cytogenetic analysis by G banding revealed a distal tandem interstitial duplication of the long arm of chromosome q6, dup.(6)(6q24.2-->q26). This chromosome abnormality was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with total chromosome 6 painting. This is probably the second documented case of 6q duplication without growth retardation or severe psychomotor retardation. The clinical findings in our patient are similar to that of whistling face syndrome (WFS) and, in fact, he was diagnosed with WFS as a child. The literature were reviewed and the phenotypic features of this patient were compared with those previously reported for both duplication 6q and whistling face syndromes. There is a significant overlap between the phenotypes of these two syndromes. Careful evaluation of the terminal end of the 6q in cases suggestive of WFS might be warranted.
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16/193. Antley-Bixler syndrome, description of two new cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) is a rare disorder characterized by multiple malformations of cartilage and bone including multisynostotic osteodysgenesis, midface hypoplasia, choanal atresia or stenosis, femoral bowing, neonatal fractures and multiple joint contractures and, occasionally, urogenital, gastrointestinal or cardiac defects. Since the first report in 1975, at least 34 cases (including this report) have been described. We present 2 cases of congenital hydrocephalus, suggesting the cause of craniosynostosis and midface hypoplasia is associated with ABS. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The first case was a 1-day-old female with arnold-chiari malformation, multiple cranial synostosis, obstructive hydrocephalus and radioulnahumeral synostosis. Ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunting was performed when she was 7 days old. She died 42 days later due to cardiopulmonary failure. The second case was a 2-month-old female with bilateral coronal synostosis, obstructive hydrocephalus and brachycephaly. V-P shunting was done soon after her admission, and bilateral lateral canthal advancement with the floating forehead procedure was performed 1 month later. She is still alive with good development. DISCUSSION: The main anomalies of the ABS can be divided into 4 categories: craniofacial, skeletal, extremity and urogenital anomalies. They may be the result of mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Ser351Cys) gene, which was confirmed in our case 2. Craniosynostosis combined with hydrocephalus created congenital increased intracranial pressure (IICP). Early V-P shunt implantation and surgical release of the closed suture and lateral canthal advancement should be done as soon as possible, ideally when the patient is younger than 3 months. CONCLUSION: Early correction of craniosynostosis was feasible and safe for one of our patients. We offer our experience in the treatment of hydrocephalus and correction of craniosynostosis to relieve IICP.
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17/193. A new arthrogryposis syndrome with facial and limb anomalies.

    A new familial syndrome of facial and limb anomalies was shown in a 4-month-old girl. Small mouth and jaw with limited jaw movement were seen in infancy, with growth to relatively normal size and movement in adulthood, but with a persistent, deep, horizontal depression just above the chin. Mild short stature and microcephaly as well as large ears with lack of the anthelix were present in family members. Severe flexion contractures of the hands and feet were present and led to subluxation of fingers and club feet in the most severely affect child. Marked variability among family members was seen, but a dominant inheritance seems likely.
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18/193. Progressive erosive arthropathy with contractures, multicentric osteolysis-like changes, characteristic craniofacial appearance, and dermatological abnormalities: a new syndrome?

    We report a 27-year-old man with an apparently new syndromic form of progressive erosive arthropathy and contractures of small and large joints associated with mild epiphyseal changes, normal vertebrae, and generalized osteopenia. The patient had a characteristic craniofacial appearance, dermatological abnormalities, and normal intelligence. The head was large with frontal bossing. The face was elongated with malar hypoplasia, thin upper lip, prominent lower jaw, high arched palate, dental malocclusion, and prominent ears with absent ear lobules. Dermatological abnormalities included malar erythema and facial telangiectasia together with multiple nevi and lentigenes all over the body. Pseudorheumatoid arthropathy, spondyloarthropathy, and Borrone dermatocardioskeletal syndrome were considered in the differential diagnosis and were excluded. Also, no similar cases have been found in POSSUM or the london Dysmorphology databases.
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19/193. Treatment of congenital convex pes valgus with navicular excision and subtalar arthroereisis: a case study.

    This article presents a case study of a 4-year-old female with a delayed diagnosis of congenital convex pes valgus. The severe soft-tissue contractures and osseous abnormalities in this case necessitated excision of the navicular and subtalar arthroereisis in addition to standard soft-tissue releases in order to achieve and maintain adequate reduction. A review of the literature and a discussion of these adjunctive techniques is provided to examine the concepts relevant to treatment of this condition.
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20/193. Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome with a nucleotide excision-repair defect and a mutated XPD gene, with prenatal diagnosis in a triplet pregnancy.

    Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome is a recessively inherited rapidly progressive neurologic disorder leading to brain atrophy, with calcifications, cataracts, microcornea, optic atrophy, progressive joint contractures, and growth failure. cockayne syndrome (CS) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by low to normal birth weight, growth failure, brain dysmyelination with calcium deposits, cutaneous photosensitivity, pigmentary retinopathy and/or cataracts, and sensorineural hearing loss. Cultured CS cells are hypersensitive to UV radiation, because of impaired nucleotide-excision repair (NER) of UV-induced damage in actively transcribed DNA, whereas global genome NER is unaffected. The abnormalities in CS are caused by mutated CSA or CSB genes. Another class of patients with CS symptoms have mutations in the XPB, XPD, or XPG genes, which result in UV hypersensitivity as well as defective global NER; such patients may concurrently have clinical features of another NER syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Clinically observed similarities between COFS syndrome and CS have been followed by discoveries of cases of COFS syndrome that are associated with mutations in the XPG and CSB genes. Here we report the first involvement of the XPD gene in a new case of UV-sensitive COFS syndrome, with heterozygous substitutions-a R616W null mutation (previously seen in patients in XP complementation group D) and a unique D681N mutation-demonstrating that a third gene can be involved in COFS syndrome. We propose that COFS syndrome be included within the already known spectrum of NER disorders: XP, CS, and trichothiodystrophy. We predict that future patients with COFS syndrome will be found to have mutations in the CSA or XPB genes, and we document successful use of dna repair for prenatal diagnosis in triplet and singleton pregnancies at risk for COFS syndrome. This result strongly underlines the need for screening of patients with COFS syndrome, for either UV sensitivity or DNA-repair abnormalities.
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