Cases reported "Abnormalities, Multiple"

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21/4461. prenatal diagnosis of dyssegmental dysplasia. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Since the first use of sonography, most fetal dwarfism has been detectable prenatally. The correct differentiation of the subtype of dwarfism is difficult at times. Dyssegmental dysplasia is probably an exception to these subtypes because the vertebral disorganization and occipital encephalocele at times permits prenatal diagnosis. CASE: A 34-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 1, elective abortion 1 for dwarfism, was referred at 27 weeks' gestation for cystic hygroma. Further sonographic findings included: cystic hygroma with massive ascites, micromelia, occipital encephalocele, spinal disorganization and hydramnios. The fetus and both parents appeared to have a normal karyotype. Later the pregnancy was terminated with vaginal delivery. The fetus had micromelia, camptomelia, cystic hygroma, a flat face, short neck, short trunk, narrow thorax with protuberant abdomen, scoliosis and clubfeet. CONCLUSION: Sonography is effective in prenatal diagnosis of dyssegmental dysplasia. With sonography, diagnosis of dyssegmental dysplasia becomes possible as early as the first trimester.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dysplasia
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22/4461. De novo deletion (14)(q11.2q13) including PAX9: clinical and molecular findings.

    A 3 year old boy with a de novo deletion (14)(q11.2q13) of paternal origin encompassing the region from D14S264 to D14S70 is described. The patient presented with severe psychomotor retardation, bilateral cleft lip/palate, bilateral colobomas of the optic nerves and retinas, agenesis of the corpus callosum, pes calcaneovarus, reduced oesophageal peristalsis, and swallowing difficulties. This is the first reported case of PAX9 hemizygosity in humans. haploinsufficiency of the PAX9 gene might be expected to cause some of the developmental defects and the dysphagia. Another haploinsufficiency candidate gene, the bZIP transcription factor gene NRL, which is specifically expressed in neuronal cells and the eye during embryogenesis, was excluded from the deletion interval.
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ranking = 0.0045591037823955
keywords = defect
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23/4461. Mesomelic dysplasia with periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures.

    We report a boy with a new form of mesomelic dysplasia characterised by short stature, multifocal periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures with minimal trauma. electrophoresis of fibroblast collagens detected defects in type III and type V collagen. CONCLUSION: Bone dysplasias presenting with osteopenia, abnormal trabecular pattern, bone fragility, and periosteal thickening suggest a collagenopathy. A possible collagen defect requires biochemical investigations.
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ranking = 0.86626106470765
keywords = dysplasia, defect
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24/4461. Successful therapy in a child with a congenital peripheral medulloepithelioma and disruption of hindquarter development.

    PURPOSE: Medulloepithelioma is an embryonal multipotential neuroepithelial tumor with a striking potential for divergent differentiation. It is usually intraocular or intracerebral and associated with a good prognosis only if completely surgically excised. Data regarding therapy in children with incompletely resected tumors are limited. PATIENT AND methods: A girl was born with a large, peripheral, congenital medulloepithelioma associated with complete absence of the left hindquarter and anus. Plain film, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete absence of the left kidney and hemipelvis. A subtotal resection of the mass and reconstruction of the tumor-related anatomical defects were performed. RESULTS: Pathologic examination showed neuroglia and pseudostratified neuroectoderm diagnostic of medulloepithelioma. She was treated with multiagent chemotherapy including vincristine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, carboplatin, and etoposide. She is now 50 months of age and developing normally without recurrent disease. CONCLUSIONS: A child with an incompletely resected congenital peripheral medulloepithelioma who has experienced long-term disease-free survival after treatment with chemotherapy is described. This report supports a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of children with peripheral medulloepithelioma.
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ranking = 0.050823335359489
keywords = congenita, defect
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25/4461. Asplenia as a cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood.

    Sudden unexpected death in childhood is rare. The commonest causes of such deaths are a result of fulminating infections of the respiratory or nervous systems. Other causes include unsuspected congenital abnormalities of the heart, acute metabolic disorders, and rarities such as internal hemorrhages and pulmonary thrombosis. Recognition of children with congenital asplenia who are otherwise normal but have an increased susceptibility to overwhelming sepsis is extremely difficult. We reviewed 1763 autopsy files from our institution over 5 years (1990-1995), of which 293 were classified as pediatric cases. The vast majority of the cases were stillbirths and deaths within the first year of life as a result of complex congenital anomalies. Four cases of asplenia were identified in our entire series, 3 of which were of the congenital syndromal variety and 1 of which was a case of isolated sporadic congenital asplenia. All 4 cases of asplenia were analyzed in detail with respect to autopsy findings and cause of death. Severe complex cardiac malformations were present in the congenital syndromal asplenia patients; these other malformations contributed significantly to their death. In this report, we discuss in detail the autopsy findings in a previously healthy 4-year-old girl who presented with a brief 8-hour history of being unwell and died within 4 hours of admission into the hospital. She had sporadic, isolated congenital asplenia complicated by high-grade type 6B pneumococcemia and acute bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome). Previously healthy children who clinically deteriorate very rapidly should have a blood smear done as part of their clinical workup. The detection of Howell-Jolly bodies on a peripheral blood smear can be an indicator of asplenia, and this diagnosis can be confirmed by medical imaging of the abdomen. Such steps may aid in the aggressive management of isolated congenital asplenia and thereby avert untimely death.
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ranking = 0.061685642102792
keywords = congenita
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26/4461. Two forms of cutis laxa presenting in the newborn period.

    Two infants are described with congenital cutis laxa. They represent two distinct disorders. In the first, congenital cutis laxa is associated with a generalized disorder of elastic tissue in which there may be diaphragmatic or other hernias, diverticula of the gastrointestinal or urinary tract and infantile emphysema. The disease is fatal often within the first year. In the second, congenital cutis laxa is associated with widely patent anterior fontanel, a variety of malformations, and retarded growth and development. Recognition of these distinct syndromes in the newborn period and their recessive inheritance permit realistic discussion of the prognosis which is very different from the benign dominant forms of cutis laxa.
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ranking = 0.036589689685242
keywords = congenita, cutis
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27/4461. OEIS complex (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects) in monozygotic twins.

    The omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects (OEIS) complex is a consistent and recognizable pattern of midline abdominal and pelvic defects. It is rare, affecting 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 pregnancies and is even rarer in twin gestations. This is an autopsy study of OEIS complex in monozygotic twins after pregnancy termination at 20 weeks of gestation. Unremarkable family history but concordance of monozygotic twins for the defects may support the theory that early malformation complexes, e.g., OEIS, and monozygotic twinning are manifestations of the same disturbance of early blastogenesis.
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ranking = 0.031913726476768
keywords = defect
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28/4461. A syndrome of congenital ichthyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy.

    Rud syndrome formerly was considered as a genetically heterogeneous but distinct clinical entity with the manifestations of ichtyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, mental retardation, epilepsy and, infrequently, retinitis pigmentosa. The existence of such a syndrome has recently been dismissed based on a new understanding of the ichthyoses. We report on the clinical history of a 14-year-old boy with congenital ichthyosis, small stature, hypogonadism, facial dysmorphism, nystagmus, kypho-scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy. He was diagnosed as Rud syndrome but developed neither seizures nor mental retardation. However a cousin was mentally retarded. The ichthyosis was familial as five relatives had ichthyosis but no other features of Rud syndrome. The patient had a deletion of the steroid-sulfatase gene. He had neither chondrodysplasia punctata, nor kallmann syndrome, two conditions which are part of the contiguous gene syndrome of the Xp22.3 region. Most case reports previously reported as Rud syndrome can now be reassigned under a contemporary ichthyosis classification that does not include Rud syndrome as a distinct entity. This case was clearly distinct from refsum disease, sjogren-larsson syndrome and any of the other ichthyosis disorders that have been suggested as a replacement for Rud syndrome. Thus the case reported here appears distinct from any previously described, currently recognized syndrome.
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ranking = 0.18141066917139
keywords = dysplasia, congenita
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29/4461. Uterine reduplication, unilateral ureteral and renal aplasia syndrome associated with endometrial cancer: a case report.

    Endometrial cancer in malformation of the urogenital system is a rare lesion. A correct diagnosis in these cases may be difficult to make due to urogenital anomalies or the unrecognised presence of a second uterine cavity. Proper diagnosis is very important for corresponding treatment.
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ranking = 0.036342060144885
keywords = aplasia
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30/4461. Leri-Weill syndrome as part of a contiguous gene syndrome at Xp22.3.

    We report on a mother and her 5-year old son, both with a terminal deletion of the short arm of the x chromosome. By molecular genetic analysis the breakpoint was located distal to steroid sulfatase gene. The boy manifested, due to nullisomy of this region, short stature (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (ARSE), and mental retardation (putative mental retardation gene MRX 49). Short stature is present in mother and son, but both also had bilateral Madelung deformity, a key finding in the Leri-Weill syndrome.We discuss the phenotype in relationship to hitherto published cases with chromosomal aberrations and contiguous gene syndromes of Xp22.3.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = dysplasia
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