Cases reported "Abnormalities, Multiple"

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1/241. patients with CHARGE association: a model to study saccular function in the human.

    The term CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations, the mnemonic CHARGE designating the most frequently occurring anomalies in the constellation. "C" indicates coloboma of the retina, "H" heart defects, "A" choanal atresia, "R" retarded growth and/or central nervous system anomalies, "G" genital hypoplasia, and "E" ear anomalies and/or deafness. The inner ear anomaly consists of a specific form of labyrinthine dysplasia that includes Mondini dysplasia of the pars inferior (cochlea and saccule) and complete absence of the pars superior (utricle and semicircular canals). We observed the development of a child with CHARGE association up to the age of 10 years. There was complete absence of nystagmic response to bithermal caloric and rotatory pendular stimuli. A nystagmic reaction was elicited by the off-vertical axis rotation test, indicating stimulation of the saccular macula, the sole remaining vestibular sense organ in this dysplasia. This reaffirms that the saccule is a vestibular organ, even though it is located in the pars inferior. In spite of the severe bilateral vestibular deficit and coloboma of the retina, the child was able to walk at the age of 2 years. The delay in the development of walking was not due to central nervous system anomalies, as suggested by the "R" of the acronym CHARGE, but rather, to the severe sensorineural visual and vestibular deficits.
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2/241. Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis.

    We report on 3 male and 2 female infants with acromelic frontonasal dysostosis. All 5 had a frontonasal malformation of the face and nasal clefting associated with striking symmetrical preaxial polysyndactyly of the feet and variable tibial hypoplasia. In contrast, the upper limbs were normal. This rare variant of frontonasal dysplasia may represent a distinct autosomal-recessive disorder. We suggest that the molecular basis of this condition may be a perturbation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signalling pathway, which plays an important part in the development of the midline central nervous system/craniofacial region and the limbs.
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3/241. Abnormal prenatal sonographic findings in the posterior cranial fossa: a case of Joubert's syndrome.

    Joubert's syndrome is a well-documented but rare disorder characterized by a variable combination of central nervous system, respiratory, renal and eye anomalies. The most significant and constant neuropathological finding is partial or complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. The syndrome was first described by Joubert and colleagues as a familial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and appears to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A case of Joubert's syndrome is described in which second-trimester ultrasonography demonstrated abnormal findings in the fetal posterior fossa with associated renal abnormalities. However, postnatal sonography of the posterior fossa could not confirm the prenatal findings, and the diagnosis of Joubert's syndrome was only later established by computed tomography of the neonatal brain in the knowledge of the characteristic clinical picture.
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4/241. Asplenia as a cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood.

    Sudden unexpected death in childhood is rare. The commonest causes of such deaths are a result of fulminating infections of the respiratory or nervous systems. Other causes include unsuspected congenital abnormalities of the heart, acute metabolic disorders, and rarities such as internal hemorrhages and pulmonary thrombosis. Recognition of children with congenital asplenia who are otherwise normal but have an increased susceptibility to overwhelming sepsis is extremely difficult. We reviewed 1763 autopsy files from our institution over 5 years (1990-1995), of which 293 were classified as pediatric cases. The vast majority of the cases were stillbirths and deaths within the first year of life as a result of complex congenital anomalies. Four cases of asplenia were identified in our entire series, 3 of which were of the congenital syndromal variety and 1 of which was a case of isolated sporadic congenital asplenia. All 4 cases of asplenia were analyzed in detail with respect to autopsy findings and cause of death. Severe complex cardiac malformations were present in the congenital syndromal asplenia patients; these other malformations contributed significantly to their death. In this report, we discuss in detail the autopsy findings in a previously healthy 4-year-old girl who presented with a brief 8-hour history of being unwell and died within 4 hours of admission into the hospital. She had sporadic, isolated congenital asplenia complicated by high-grade type 6B pneumococcemia and acute bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome). Previously healthy children who clinically deteriorate very rapidly should have a blood smear done as part of their clinical workup. The detection of Howell-Jolly bodies on a peripheral blood smear can be an indicator of asplenia, and this diagnosis can be confirmed by medical imaging of the abdomen. Such steps may aid in the aggressive management of isolated congenital asplenia and thereby avert untimely death.
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5/241. The wide spectrum of clinical expression in Adams-Oliver syndrome: a report of two cases.

    Two children are described with the combination of aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and transverse limb defects known as Adams-Oliver syndrome. Whereas in the first child the typical features of ACC, syndactyly and transverse nail dystrophy were only mildly expressed and associated defects of the central nervous system and cardiac malformations were absent, the second child suffered from a very severe expression of the syndrome, with a combination of ACC, syndactyly, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita and multiple cardiac and central nervous system malformations which resulted in fatal central respiratory insufficiency.
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6/241. XLMR syndrome characterized by multiple respiratory infections, hypertelorism, severe CNS deterioration and early death localizes to distal Xq28.

    We report on a family with severe X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and progressive, severe central nervous system deterioration. Three of the five affected males died of secondary complications before the age of 10 years and none have survived past the age of 10. These complications included swallowing dysfunction and gastroesophageal reflux with secondary recurrent respiratory infections. In addition, hypotonia and a mild myopathy were also present. All had a characteristic facies, including downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, and a short nose with a low nasal bridge. The two older boys showed cerebral atrophy by CT. No metabolic abnormalities were identified. Three obligate carriers had an IQ less than 80. The causal gene has been localized distal to DXS8103 in Xq28, a region spanning 5cM. No other XLMR disorder with these manifestations have been localized to this region and this appears to be a new disorder.
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7/241. Aplasia of right internal carotid artery and hypopituitarism.

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of congenital hypopituitarism is unknown in many cases. OBJECTIVE: We report a case of congenital pan-anterior hypopituitarism in association with a complex vascular abnormality involving the central nervous system, nasal pyriform aperture stenosis, and a single central maxillary incisor. MATERIALS AND methods: MRI and MRA were used to define this patient's complex vascular anomaly. RESULTS: The vascular abnormality consists of absence of the right common carotid artery, the right internal carotid artery, the A1 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery, the anterior communicating artery, and partial absence of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. CONCLUSION: This unusual vascular anomaly may contribute to the pathogenesis of some cases of congenital hypopituitarism and related midline abnormalities, or may result from a common defect that causes pituitary insufficiency.
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8/241. epilepsy and polymicrogyria in Kabuki make-up (Niikawa-Kuroki) syndrome.

    Kabuki make-up syndrome is a rare dysmorphogenic disorder characterized by peculiar facial appearance (resembling the make-up of actors in Kabuki, the traditional Japanese theatre), skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, postnatal growth deficiency, and mental retardation. central nervous system dysfunctions, other than mental retardation, are rarely reported; they include microcephaly, brachycephaly, early hypotonia, feeding disorders, subatrophy of the optic nerves, subarachnoid cyst, cerebellar and brainstem atrophy, and epilepsy. These manifestations appear to be more common in non-Japanese patients. Reported is an Italian child with phenotypical appearance of Kabuki make-up syndrome and partial epilepsy who demonstrated polymicrogyria on neuroimaging. This article is the first report of a gyration disorder in Kabuki make-up syndrome. The relationship between epilepsy and polymicrogyria in this patient is discussed.
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9/241. PHACE: a neurocutaneous syndrome with important ophthalmologic implications: case report and literature review.

    OBJECTIVES: To introduce PHACE syndrome (Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Coarctation of the aorta and other cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities) to the ophthalmologic literature; to report the first case of PHACE syndrome associated with congenital glaucoma; and to review the ocular and systemic findings that may occur in this entity. DESIGN: Case report and literature review. methods: The authors report a child with PHACE syndrome and congenital glaucoma and review the ophthalmologic and systemic manifestations of this syndrome. RESULTS: A 9-month-old girl with PHACE syndrome was treated. She had a large right facial hemangioma, central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities, and cardiac anomalies. glaucoma was detected in her left eye, and she underwent glaucoma surgery. She did well following two glaucoma procedures, and the facial hemangioma is responding to medical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists who examine children with large facial hemangiomas should consider PHACE syndrome in the differential diagnosis and should obtain appropriate CNS imaging studies and cardiac evaluation when the diagnosis is suspected. Congenital glaucoma should be added to the list of PHACE-associated ocular anomalies.
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10/241. Mobius sequence, hypogenitalism, cerebral, and skeletal malformations in two brothers.

    Two brothers born to a healthy, consanguineous Spanish couple have a syndrome of Mobius sequence with involvement of cranial nerves V, VI, VII, IX, and XII, central nervous system malformations; characteristic face with creased earlobes, short philthrum, and a short, arched upper lip, skeletal anomalies with short sternum and delayed bone maturation, hypogenitalism, and profound mental retardation. We suggest that this is a new multiple congenital anomalies condition and mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome with autosomic recessive inheritance.
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