Cases reported "Abnormalities, Multiple"

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1/1454. Diprosopus (partially duplicated head) associated with anencephaly: a case report.

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twin. A 16 year old mother with a twin pregnancy delivered one normally formed baby boy and one diprosopus male. The malformed baby was 33 weeks of gestation with a single trunk, normal limbs and various degrees of facial duplication. Of the following structures there were two of each: noses, eyes, ears (and one dimple), mouths, tongues and, with bilateral central cleft lips and cleft palates. This was associated with holoprosencephaly and craniorachischisis. Internal organs showed no duplication. There were multiple congenital anomalies including diaphragmatic hernia, small lungs, two lobes of the right lung, ventricular septal defect, small adrenal gland and small left kidney with short ureter. The body also had a short neck, small chest cavities and kyphosis. X-ray revealed duplication of the vertebral column. The case presented here represents a type II of diprosopia of Rating (1933) and is the least common type reported. We also reviewed 22 recently reported cases of diprosopus. In addition to facial duplication, anencephaly, neural tube defect and cardiac malformations represent the more common congenital abnormalities associated with diprosopus. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood. Factors that play a role in diprosopus are probably similar to those factors (genetic, environmental and abnormal placental circulation) which affect monozoygotic twins as observed in this case report. Early ultrasonography diagnosis of diprosopus permits one to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.
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2/1454. child with velocardiofacial syndrome and del (4)(q34.2): another critical region associated with a velocardiofacial syndrome-like phenotype.

    We report on a child with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, pulmonic stenosis), submucosal cleft palate, hypernasal speech, learning difficulties, and right fifth finger anomaly manifestations, consistent with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS); however, cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a small terminal deletion of the segment 4q34.2 to 4qter. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not identify a deletion of the critical region associated with VCFS. In previously reported 4q deletions with a breakpoint distal to 4q34.2, no cardiac defects or cleft of palate were reported. Our patient has a deletion of 4q34.2 to 4qter and has palate and cardiac involvement and minor learning difficulties, which implies that genes involved in heart and palate development lie distal to 4q34.2, and that the critical region for more severe mental retardation on 4q may reside proximal to 4q34.2. These results suggest that a distal 4q deletion can lead to a phenotype similar to VCFS and emphasizes the importance of searching for other karyotype abnormalities when a VCFS-like phenotype is present and a 22q deletion is not identified.
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3/1454. Prenatal detection of a 1p36 deletion in a fetus with multiple malformations and a review of the literature.

    The prenatal diagnosis of a 1p36 deletion is reported. The pregnancy was ascertained at 24 weeks of gestation because of the discovery of multiple malformations at ultrasound including hypotelorism, moderate cerebral ventricular dilatation and ebstein anomaly with secondary cardiac failure. Following cytogenetic studies and counselling, the pregnancy was terminated and a fetal autopsy performed. The phenotype of this antenatally-diagnosed case is compared with the clinical features of 44 previously reported cases with an identical deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1p36.
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4/1454. Diagnosis of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence in the first trimester by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound.

    A case of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence was diagnosed at 12 weeks' gestation using transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound, which demonstrated the presence of retrograde perfusion in the umbilical artery of the abnormal twin. Ultrasound imaging showed a monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy with an inappropriately grown second twin, the morphological evaluation of which revealed an abnormal cephalic pole with acrania, diffuse subcutaneous edema and the presence of cardiac activity in an abnormal heart with a single chamber.
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5/1454. Mutchinick syndrome in a Japanese girl.

    We report on a 7-year-old Japanese girl with Mutchinick syndrome, a rare congenital malformation syndrome described in a pair of Argentinean sisters and a pair of German brothers; both originating from the same geographic region in the former East prussia. The girl we describe had most of the clinical manifestations of the syndrome, including growth and developmental retardation, and craniofacial anomalies with microcephaly, hypertelorism, a broad straight nose, low-set malformed ears, and a wide, tented mouth. She also had the following hitherto undescribed manifestations: ventricular septal defect, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, bilateral partial soft-tissue syndactyly of second and third toes, and megaloureters. The occurrence of the syndrome in a Japanese girl indicates that the syndrome is not restricted to the descendants of individuals from a confined region in northeastern europe.
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6/1454. Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis.

    We report on 3 male and 2 female infants with acromelic frontonasal dysostosis. All 5 had a frontonasal malformation of the face and nasal clefting associated with striking symmetrical preaxial polysyndactyly of the feet and variable tibial hypoplasia. In contrast, the upper limbs were normal. This rare variant of frontonasal dysplasia may represent a distinct autosomal-recessive disorder. We suggest that the molecular basis of this condition may be a perturbation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signalling pathway, which plays an important part in the development of the midline central nervous system/craniofacial region and the limbs.
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7/1454. trisomy 10: first-trimester features on ultrasound, fetoscopy and postmortem of a case associated with increased nuchal translucency.

    We report a case of the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 10 in a fetus presenting with an increased nuchal translucency thickness (5 mm) on a routine first-trimester anomaly scan at 12 weeks' gestation. Multiple abnormalities were diagnosed by ultrasound and fetoscopy. karyotyping on chorionic villus sampling led to the diagnosis of homogeneous trisomy 10 which was confirmed by in situ hybridization on fetal tissue samples. Postmortem examination confirmed major anatomical malformations, including facial cleft, arthrogryposis of the upper and lower limbs and bilateral diaphragmatic hernia, and also revealed hypoplastic lungs, right renal agenesis and a complex cardiac malformation. trisomy 10 is an uncommon chromosomal abnormality that is likely to be associated with increased fetal nuchal translucency. This case also emphasizes the value of a detailed anomaly scan in high-risk patients in the first trimester of pregnancy.
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8/1454. Vaginal atresia and bardet-biedl syndrome association: a component or a distinct entity?

    bardet-biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by cardinal anomalies including retinal dystrophy, digital malformations, mental retardation, obesity, and hypogonadism. Recently, renal anomalies also are mentioned among the cardinal signs. Although association of genital anomalies among affected boys are well known, the association of vaginal atresia and other structural genital anomalies are not mentioned among the less-common manifestations of bardet-biedl syndrome in girls. Two girls with bardet-biedl syndrome presented with hematometrocolpos in the preadolescent period and vaginal atresia was diagnosed. After surgical treatment and extended hospitalization, uncontrolled sepsis resulted in progressive renal failure and death of both patients. Vaginal atresia is often delayed or missed in the early childhood period. In girls with bardet-biedl syndrome, vaginal atresia or other structural genital anomalies should be evaluated more systematically during the initial diagnosis of the syndrome. In infancy, the evaluation of a child with vaginal atresia also should include the differential diagnosis of bardet-biedl syndrome. Vaginal atresia may either form a component of the syndrome, or girls who present with vaginal atresia in addition to other components of bardet-biedl syndrome might form a distinct entity.
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9/1454. Robinow (fetal face) syndrome: report of a boy with dominant type and an infant with recessive type.

    The cases of two patients with Robinow fetal face syndrome, an 11-year-old Thai boy and a newborn Caucasian girl, are described. The Thai boy had the characteristics typical of the dominant type of the syndrome with a few newly recognized signs, including communicating hydrocephalus, underdeveloped sinuses, short roots of the teeth, narrow and thick-floored pulp chambers, hypoplastic nipples, absent middle phalanges of the second to fifth toes, cone-shaped epiphyses of the second and fourth fingers and fifth toes, single creases of the fourth and fifth fingers, clinodactyly of the third fingers, dysmorphic umbilicus, and shawl scrotum. The girl had anomalies typical of the recessive type of the syndrome. She also had capillary hemangioma at the tip of her nose and hypoplastic fourth metatarsal bones, which are the newly recognized features of the recessive type. Infrequently reported clinical manifestations of the syndrome are discussed.
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10/1454. A syndrome of congenital ichthyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy.

    Rud syndrome formerly was considered as a genetically heterogeneous but distinct clinical entity with the manifestations of ichtyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, mental retardation, epilepsy and, infrequently, retinitis pigmentosa. The existence of such a syndrome has recently been dismissed based on a new understanding of the ichthyoses. We report on the clinical history of a 14-year-old boy with congenital ichthyosis, small stature, hypogonadism, facial dysmorphism, nystagmus, kypho-scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy. He was diagnosed as Rud syndrome but developed neither seizures nor mental retardation. However a cousin was mentally retarded. The ichthyosis was familial as five relatives had ichthyosis but no other features of Rud syndrome. The patient had a deletion of the steroid-sulfatase gene. He had neither chondrodysplasia punctata, nor kallmann syndrome, two conditions which are part of the contiguous gene syndrome of the Xp22.3 region. Most case reports previously reported as Rud syndrome can now be reassigned under a contemporary ichthyosis classification that does not include Rud syndrome as a distinct entity. This case was clearly distinct from refsum disease, sjogren-larsson syndrome and any of the other ichthyosis disorders that have been suggested as a replacement for Rud syndrome. Thus the case reported here appears distinct from any previously described, currently recognized syndrome.
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