Cases reported "Abnormalities, Multiple"

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1/1484. Diprosopus (partially duplicated head) associated with anencephaly: a case report.

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twin. A 16 year old mother with a twin pregnancy delivered one normally formed baby boy and one diprosopus male. The malformed baby was 33 weeks of gestation with a single trunk, normal limbs and various degrees of facial duplication. Of the following structures there were two of each: noses, eyes, ears (and one dimple), mouths, tongues and, with bilateral central cleft lips and cleft palates. This was associated with holoprosencephaly and craniorachischisis. Internal organs showed no duplication. There were multiple congenital anomalies including diaphragmatic hernia, small lungs, two lobes of the right lung, ventricular septal defect, small adrenal gland and small left kidney with short ureter. The body also had a short neck, small chest cavities and kyphosis. X-ray revealed duplication of the vertebral column. The case presented here represents a type II of diprosopia of Rating (1933) and is the least common type reported. We also reviewed 22 recently reported cases of diprosopus. In addition to facial duplication, anencephaly, neural tube defect and cardiac malformations represent the more common congenital abnormalities associated with diprosopus. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood. Factors that play a role in diprosopus are probably similar to those factors (genetic, environmental and abnormal placental circulation) which affect monozoygotic twins as observed in this case report. Early ultrasonography diagnosis of diprosopus permits one to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.
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2/1484. Kenny-Caffey syndrome: an Arab variant?

    We describe 2 unrelated Bedouin girls who met the criteria for the diagnosis of Kenny-Caffey syndrome. The girls had some unusual features--microcephaly and psychomotor retardation--that distinguish the Kenny-Caffey syndrome profile in Arab children from the classical Kenny-Caffey syndrome phenotype characterized by macrocephaly and normal intelligence. The 2 girls did not harbor the 22q11 microdeletion (the hallmark of the DiGeorge cluster of diseases) that we previously reported in another Bedouin family with the Kenny-Caffey syndrome (Sabry et al. J Med Genet 1998: 35(1): 31-36). This indicates considerable genetic heterogeneity for this syndrome. We also review previously reported 44 Arab/Bedouin patients with the same profile of hypoparathyroidism, short stature, seizures, mental retardation and microcephaly. Our results suggest that these patients represent an Arab variant of Kenny-Caffey syndrome with characteristic microcephaly and psychomotor retardation. We suggest that all patients with Kenny-Caffey syndrome should be investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion. Other possible genetic causes for the Kenny-Caffey syndrome or its Arab variant include chromosome 10p abnormalities.
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3/1484. Prenatal detection of a 1p36 deletion in a fetus with multiple malformations and a review of the literature.

    The prenatal diagnosis of a 1p36 deletion is reported. The pregnancy was ascertained at 24 weeks of gestation because of the discovery of multiple malformations at ultrasound including hypotelorism, moderate cerebral ventricular dilatation and ebstein anomaly with secondary cardiac failure. Following cytogenetic studies and counselling, the pregnancy was terminated and a fetal autopsy performed. The phenotype of this antenatally-diagnosed case is compared with the clinical features of 44 previously reported cases with an identical deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1p36.
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4/1484. Radial club hand with absence of the biceps muscle treated by centralisation of the ulna and triceps transfer. Report of two cases.

    Two children with radial club hand and absence of the biceps muscle were treated by centralisation of the ulna into the carpus and triceps transfer. The two operations were performed only a short time apart so that the period between the procedures could be used to stretch the triceps and to enable the children to adapt to an altered position of the wrist and to mobility of the elbow at one step and following a single period of plaster immobilisation. It is very likely that function is better than it would have been had the condition remained untreated. Before operation the children had only a crude hook function of the hand against the forearm and could not bring the hand to the mouth. Even if function is not much improved, the improvement in appearance is considerable and is by itself sufficient to justify the procedures.
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5/1484. De novo inverted duplication 9p21pter involving telomeric repeated sequences.

    We report on clinical and cytogenetic findings in a boy with partial 9p duplication, dup(9)(p21pter). Clinical manifestations included facial and hand anomalies and mental retardation. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to characterize further and confirm the conventional banding data. Investigation by FISH using whole chromosome 9 paint probe showed that the additional material was derived from chromosome 9. Using CGH, a region of gain was found in the chromosome segment 9p21pter. YACs and telomeric probes confirmed the duplicated region. Using the all-human telomeric sequences probe, intrachromosomal telomeric signal was noted on the short arm of the abnormal chromosome 9. Mechanism of formation of the duplication, including intrachromosomal telomeric sequences, is discussed.
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6/1484. prenatal diagnosis of dyssegmental dysplasia. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Since the first use of sonography, most fetal dwarfism has been detectable prenatally. The correct differentiation of the subtype of dwarfism is difficult at times. Dyssegmental dysplasia is probably an exception to these subtypes because the vertebral disorganization and occipital encephalocele at times permits prenatal diagnosis. CASE: A 34-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 1, elective abortion 1 for dwarfism, was referred at 27 weeks' gestation for cystic hygroma. Further sonographic findings included: cystic hygroma with massive ascites, micromelia, occipital encephalocele, spinal disorganization and hydramnios. The fetus and both parents appeared to have a normal karyotype. Later the pregnancy was terminated with vaginal delivery. The fetus had micromelia, camptomelia, cystic hygroma, a flat face, short neck, short trunk, narrow thorax with protuberant abdomen, scoliosis and clubfeet. CONCLUSION: Sonography is effective in prenatal diagnosis of dyssegmental dysplasia. With sonography, diagnosis of dyssegmental dysplasia becomes possible as early as the first trimester.
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7/1484. Mesomelic dysplasia with periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures.

    We report a boy with a new form of mesomelic dysplasia characterised by short stature, multifocal periosteal thickening, radio-humeral dislocation, osteoporosis and multiple fractures with minimal trauma. electrophoresis of fibroblast collagens detected defects in type III and type V collagen. CONCLUSION: Bone dysplasias presenting with osteopenia, abnormal trabecular pattern, bone fragility, and periosteal thickening suggest a collagenopathy. A possible collagen defect requires biochemical investigations.
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8/1484. Robinow (fetal face) syndrome: report of a boy with dominant type and an infant with recessive type.

    The cases of two patients with Robinow fetal face syndrome, an 11-year-old Thai boy and a newborn Caucasian girl, are described. The Thai boy had the characteristics typical of the dominant type of the syndrome with a few newly recognized signs, including communicating hydrocephalus, underdeveloped sinuses, short roots of the teeth, narrow and thick-floored pulp chambers, hypoplastic nipples, absent middle phalanges of the second to fifth toes, cone-shaped epiphyses of the second and fourth fingers and fifth toes, single creases of the fourth and fifth fingers, clinodactyly of the third fingers, dysmorphic umbilicus, and shawl scrotum. The girl had anomalies typical of the recessive type of the syndrome. She also had capillary hemangioma at the tip of her nose and hypoplastic fourth metatarsal bones, which are the newly recognized features of the recessive type. Infrequently reported clinical manifestations of the syndrome are discussed.
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9/1484. Uniparental isodisomy resulting from 46,XX,i(1p),i(1q) in a woman with short stature, ptosis, micro/retrognathia, myopathy, deafness, and sterility.

    We report on a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation because of minor facial anomalies, myopathy, sterility, short stature, hearing loss, downward slant of palpebral fissures, bilateral ptosis, severe micro/retrognathia, high arched palate, and scoliosis. Cytogenetic analyses utilizing GTG/CBG bandings showed presence of one i(1p) and one i(1q) without normal chromosome 1 homologues. fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed hybridization to only two chromosomes, consistent with the G-banded interpretation of i(1p) and i(1q). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of isochromosomes 1p and 1q replacing the two normal chromosome 1s. Molecular investigations using markers for chromosome 1 showed inheritance of only one set of paternal alleles and absence of any maternal alleles in the patient. The adverse phenotype of the patient may be due to one or more recessive mutations, genomic imprinting, or a combination of both.
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10/1484. Jarcho-Levin syndrome: report on a long-term follow-up of an untreated patient.

    Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a genetically transmitted rare entity characterized by multiple vertebral and rib anomalies. The multilevel skeletal involvement causes short stature, neck and thoracic cage deformities, and restrictive lung disease that is usually the cause of early death. The authors describe a 33-year follow-up of a patient with this syndrome who represents, to their best knowledge, the longest survival of a patient with this entity.
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