Cases reported "Abortion, Habitual"

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1/15. Human male infertility: chromosome anomalies, meiotic disorders, abnormal spermatozoa and recurrent abortion.

    Human male infertility is often related to chromosome abnormalities. In chromosomally normal infertile males, the rates of chromosome 21 and sex chromosome disomy in spermatozoa are increased. Higher incidences of trisomy 21 (seldom of paternal origin) and sex chromosome aneuploidy are also found. XXY and XYY patients produce increased numbers of XY, XX and YY spermatozoa, indicating an increased risk of production of XXY, XYY and XXX individuals. Since XXYs can reproduce using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), this could explain the slight increase of sex chromosome anomalies in ICSI series. Carriers of structural reorganizations produce unbalanced spermatozoa, and risk having children with duplications and/or deficiencies. In some cases, this risk is considerably lower or higher than average. These patients also show increased diploidy, and a higher risk of producing diandric triploids. Meiotic disorders are frequent in infertile males, and increase with severe oligoasthenozoospemia (OA) and/or high follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. These patients produce spermatozoa with autosomal and sex chromosome disomies, and diploid spermatozoa. Their contribution to recurrent abortion depends on the production of trisomies, monosomies and of triploids. The most frequent sperm chromosome anomaly in infertile males is diploidy, originated by either meiotic mutations or by a compromised testicular environment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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2/15. Recurrent trisomy 15 in a female carrier of der(15)t(Y;15)(q12;p13).

    We report on a female carrier of der(15) t(Y;15)(q12;p13) who had two pregnancy losses with trisomy 15 and one with tetraploidy. Molecular analysis showed that both non-disjunction events resulting in the trisomy 15 pregnancies occurred in maternal meiosis I. This finding raises the possibility that there may be an increased risk for trisomy 15 in some carriers of unbalanced t(Y;15) which, if followed by trisomic zygote rescue, may lead to uniparental disomy (UPD).
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ranking = 7
keywords = trisomy
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3/15. Successive spontaneous abortions with diverse chromosomal aberrations in human translocation heterozygote.

    A patient who had 3 first-trimester spontaneous abortions (blighted ova) was found to be carrying a balanced 13/14 Robertsonian translocation. In the 2 cases cytogenetically analyzed, different chromosomal aberration were found (trisomy 16 and supernumerary D elements). Histologic examination of the placentas of all 3 abortions revealed hypovascular or avascular villi, hydropic degeneration, and occasional atypical stromal (Hofbauer-like) cells. In 2 cases the decidua was examined by light microscopy and was diffusely inflamed with a plasmolymphocytic infiltrate. The relation of the maternal translocation to the repeated abortions with chromosome anomalies is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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4/15. A novel family-specific translocation t(2;20)(p24.1;q13.1) associated with recurrent abortions: molecular characterization and segregation analysis in male meiosis.

    In the present study, we present a novel reciprocal translocation t(2;20)(p24.1;q13.1) and its segregation in a three generation family. The rate of miscarriages (50%) in pregnancies from male translocation carriers could be explained by unbalanced translocation-bearing spermatozoa found with a frequency of approximately 55% in the entire sperm population of a t(2;20)(p24.1;q13.1) carrier. These imbalanced spermatozoa mainly present as 2, der(20) and der(2), 20 missegregated (approximately 46%) while adjacent 2 and 3:1 segregation patterns account for approximately 5% and 4% of imbalances, respectively. While the translocation is associated clearly with an increased risk of early abortions (7/12) in both male and female carriers, no malformed livebirths were observed. Our results suggest complete embryonic lethality of imbalanced offspring. With respect to a high rate of segregation to 2, der(20) and to der(2), 20 imbalanced spermatozoa in male translocation carriers and with respect to known cases of partial trisomy 2p and 20q we consider that their corresponding monosomies result in fetal loss. This is the first study reporting multiple abortions associated with partial monosomy 20q13.1-->qter and 2pter-->p24.1 and the first report on the frequency of chromosomal imbalances in gametes of a male t(2;20)(p24.1;q13.1) heterozygote.
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ranking = 3.528712305582
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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5/15. Partial trisomy 2q(2q37.3-->qter) and monosomy 7q(7q34

>qter) due to paternal reciprocal translocation 2;7: a case report.

    We report an unbalanced translocation involving chromosome 2 and 7 due to a balanced reciprocal translocation 2;7 in the father. The female fetus had a partial trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 2 with a partial monosomy of distal 7q. Ultrasound at the first trimester had indicated normal fetal anatomy, including normal intracranial structures. Parental karyotypes showed a paternal balanced translocation: 46,XY,t(2;7)(q37.3;-->q34). The unbalanced translocation in the fetus resulted in trisomy for 2q37.3 qter and monosomy for 7q34-->qter. Postnatal examination showed that the female abortus had a cleft lip and palate, and mild dysmorphic features. The clinical phenotype was in agreement with previous descriptions and allowed us to propose a fetal phenotype for this chromosomal abnormality.
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ranking = 8.528712305582
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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6/15. Familial cryptic translocation (2;17) ascertained through recurrent spontaneous abortions.

    We report a young woman who presented with a reproductive history of three recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) and two neonatal deaths. comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to determine the chromosomal composition of the patient's last miscarriage. It showed the presence of monosomy for the distal end of chromosome 2 long arm (segment 2q37.2 to qter) and trisomy for the distal end of chromosome 17 long arm (segment 17q25 to qter). The mother was found to be a carrier for a cryptic translocation between chromosomes 2 and 17 long arms by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a subtelomeric probe for 17q. Retrospective CGH analysis on one baby who died neonatally showed that he had inherited the maternal translocation in the same unbalanced state as the last pregnancy loss. His detailed postmortem examination is reported.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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7/15. Partial trisomy 1p due to paternal t(1;9) translocation in a family with recurrent miscarriages.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a new case with partial trisomy 1p due to paternal t(1;9) translocation in a family with recurrent miscarriages. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: faculty of medicine, Cukurova University. PATIENT(S): A couple with recurrent miscarriages, an abnormal fetus, a newborn infant, paternal grandfather and grandmother. INTERVENTION(S): chorionic villi sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, lymphocytic karyotype, and genetic counseling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Chromosomal analysis of CVS, amniotic cells, and peripheral blood lymphocytes were performed according to standard cytogenetic methods using G-banding technique. RESULT(S): We determined the reproductive risk in a couple who carried a balance and an unbalanced rearrangement of chromosomes 1 and 9 in two generations of a normal father with derivative 9 karyotype. The prenatal and postnatal karyotypes of the newborn infant were the same as the father [46,XY,der(9)t(1:9)(p34.2;q34.3)]. He was also phenotypically normal. The abnormal fetus that was miscarried also had a derivative 9 [46,XY,der(9)t(1:9)(p34.2;q34.3)fat]. The der(9) contained the partial short arm of chromosome 1. Both chromosome 1 showed normal. trisomy 1p in the fetus was the result of familial derivative 9. CONCLUSION(S): Partial trisomy is associated with fetal wastage, and may play a role in the etiology of the other miscarriages in certain families. The apparent lack of increased reproductive failure may result from the selective disadvantage of aneusomic gamets at fertilization or very early spontaneous abortions of unbalanced conceptuses. The detection of couples with chromosomal anomalies can undoubtedly help prevent the births of malformed infants. These findings would be used widely in clinical genetics and as an effective tool for genetic counseling and reproductive guidance.
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ranking = 8.528712305582
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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8/15. trisomy 20p from maternal translocation and anencephaly. Case report and genetic review.

    This paper concerns the case of an anencephalus male fetus with partial trisomy 20p product of a maternal translocation 46,XX, t(15;20) (p11.2;p12), ascertained by prenatal diagnosis. A cytogenetic review of previous cases is presented. Several hypotheses are discussed in order to explain the recurrent abortions of the mother and the aetiology of anencephaly in this last pregnancy.
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ranking = 3.528712305582
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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9/15. trisomy 18 mosaicism in an adult with normal intelligence.

    A healthy 30-year-old woman was discovered unexpectedly to have trisomy 18/normal chromosome mosaicism. She was ascertained because of a history of three spontaneous abortions following the birth of a healthy son. trisomy 18 was present in 18% of her lymphocytes and 2% of her cultured skin fibroblasts. She had several minor malformations associated with trisomy 18 syndrome. She is, to our knowledge, the first person who has clinical stigmata of trisomy 18 but has normal intelligence and leads a normal family life.
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ranking = 3
keywords = trisomy
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10/15. Familial translocation t(10;21)(q22;q22).

    A family is described with a translocation t(10;21)(q22;q22) transmitted through three generations. This family was studied for the apparition of several miscarriages and two sisters with multiple malformations. Both children had a probably partial trisomy of chromosome 10 and a monosomy of chromosome 21 due to a maternal adjacent-2 meiotic segregation.
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ranking = 3.528712305582
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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