Cases reported "Abortion, Habitual"

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1/227. A novel resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a new mutation (T329N) in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene.

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of elevated serum thyroxine, inappropriately "normal" serum thyrotropin (TSH) and reduced thyroid hormone responsiveness associated with point mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TRbeta) gene. We describe a novel point mutation resulting in a cytosine for adenine substitution at nucleotide 1271 (exon 9) that results in the substitution of threonine for asparagine (T329N). This mutation was identified in a 30-year-old woman who was investigated for recurrent spontaneous abortions and was found to have RTH. dextrothyroxine (D-T4) therapy was instituted. At 8 mg per day 2 pregnancies followed with the delivery of a healthy boy and an RTH-affected girl another miscarriage occurred on D-T4 treatment at 6 mg per day. The T329N mutation, which was also identified in the daughter, markedly reduces the affinity of TRbeta for triiodothyronine (T3). Formation of T329N mutant TR homodimers and heterodimers with RXRalpha on thyroid hormone response element F2 (TRE F2) was not affected, but the ability of T3 to interrupt T329N mutant TRbeta homodimerization was markedly reduced. The T329N mutant TRbeta was transcriptionally inactive in transient expression assays. In cotransfection assays with wild-type TRbeta1, the mutant TRbeta1 functioned in a dominant negative manner. The results suggest that the T329N mutation in the T3-binding domain of TRbeta is responsible for RTH in the proposita's family. ( info)

2/227. factor v Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion.

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor v Leiden mutation and had a functional protein s deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein i antibodies. The impairment of the protein c pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein c system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs. ( info)

3/227. Recurrent miscarriage, congenital heart block and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    We report the obstetric history of a woman, who between 15 spontaneous abortions, gave birth to a child with congenital heart block. She later developed systemic lupus erythematosus, had antibodies to SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La but was repeatedly negative for antiphospholipid antibodies. ( info)

4/227. myocardial infarction and death after caesarean section in a woman with protein s deficiency and undiagnosed phaeochromocytoma.

    We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman, with a previous history of recurrent abortion due to protein s deficiency, undergoing an elective Caesarean section at 39-weeks gestation. During pregnancy no signs of hypertension or cardiovascular disease were reported, but at the end of the surgical procedure, the patient developed acute hypertension, leading to myocardial infarction, severe heart failure and death. The autopsy revealed a 2-cm undiagnosed phaeochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland. Clinical diagnostic features of phaeochromocytoma during pregnancy as well as the main therapeutic approaches suggested in the literature are discussed. ( info)

5/227. Constitutional chromosomal breakage.

    There were 18 individuals found to have a constitutional chromosome fragility causing an increase in break frequency. For each chromosome the breakpoint is always the same, whether it involves chromosomes from the same person, the same family, or different families. The fragile points are bands 10q24, 12q13, 16q21, 17p12, and Xq27. Autosomal constitutional fragility does not seem to have a phenotypic correspondence. They were found mostly in parents of children with chromosomal abnormalities or in couples with a history of repeated spontaneous abortions which permits one to raise the possibility of an interchromosomal effect. The six constitutional chromosomal fragilities of the x chromosome had in common the association of mental deficiency, delayed speech, and large malformed ears. The break points in constitutional chromosomal fragility were compared to those of spontaneous breaks in vitro, to those induced by x-rays, and to those in Fanconi's anemia. The theoretical consequences of these structural abnormalities are discussed as well as what to do about them when they are found. ( info)

6/227. Twin delivery after myomectomy, in vitro fertilization, and embryo reduction in an infertile woman.

    A 28-year-old patient had metroplasty performed because of necrosis of a uterine fibroid. During follow-up, the left adnexa were removed because of a recurrent left ovarian cyst. The triplet gestation achieved by in vitro fertilization was reduced to twins. The living premature newborns were delivered abdominally. ( info)

7/227. Analysis of segregation and aneuploidy in two reciprocal translocation carriers, t(3;9)(q26.2;q32) and t(3;9)(p25;q32), by triple-color fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Meiotic segregation patterns of chromosomes 3 and 9 were analyzed in sperm of two translocation carriers (t(3;9)(q26.2;q32) and t(3;9)(p25;q32)) by triple-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric dna probe in addition to two centromeric probes. The frequencies of each sperm product resulting from alternate or adjacent I, adjacent II and 3:1 segregation in a t(3;9)(q26.2;q32) translocation carrier were 88.35%, 5.44% and 5.94%, respectively. On the other hand, the frequencies of each sperm product in a t(3;9)(p25;q32) translocation carrier were 89.23%, 6.02% and 4.48%, respectively. Of all the sperm products, the frequency of normal or chromosomally balanced sperm in a t(3;9)(q26.2;q32) and a t(3;9)(p25;q32) were 52.49% and 47.25%, respectively. The frequencies of each sperm product resulting from various segregations were different between both carriers and significantly deviated from the expected frequencies. Additional dual-color and triple-color FISH were performed to analyze aneuploidy rates for chromosomes 12, 17, 18, X and Y in order to detect any interchromosomal effect; no evidence of an interchromosomal effect was found. ( info)

8/227. Non-invasive exclusion of fetal aneuploidy in an at-risk couple with a balanced translocation.

    A pregnant woman who was a carrier for a balanced chromosome translocation [46,XX, t(1;6) (p31;q14)] and who had had six miscarriages, declined invasive testing but agreed to non-invasive prenatal diagnosis by analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood. Monoclonal antibody (Mab) against the zeta (z) and gamma (gamma) chains of embryonic and fetal haemoglobin were used to identify fetal nucleated erythrocytes (FNRBC). There were no FNRBC detected at 7 weeks, one anti-z-positive FNRBC was detected at 11 weeks, and 12 anti-gamma-positive FNRBC were detected at 20 weeks. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization was performed using probes for chromosomes X, Y, 1 and 6 to identify fetal gender and the presence of an unbalanced chromosomal translocation. A tentative prenatal diagnosis was made of a female fetus disomic for chromosomes 1 and 6. A female infant with a 46,XX karyotype was born at term. This is the first attempt of exclusion of a chromosome translocation using fetal cells isolated from maternal blood. There is an advantage of using fetal cells isolated from maternal blood for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis in couples who have a history of multiple miscarriages due to a parental translocation, and who decline invasive testing in a pregnancy that continues to the second trimester. ( info)

9/227. Neonatal thrombocytopenia induced by maternal anti-HLA antibodies: a potential side effect of allogenic leukocyte immunization for unexplained recurrent aborters.

    Allogenic leukocyte immunization is one of several treatments tried for unexplained recurrent aborters, and is reported to have few maternal and neonatal side effects after the immunotherapy having been reported to date. In the present study, we report a rare case of neonatal thrombocytopenia (41000 cells/microl) observed in a female infant delivered by an unexplained habitual aborter. The mother was immunized with her husband's leukocytes once before pregnancy and twice at the 5th and 6th week of her successful pregnancy. Serological studies using mixed passive hemagglutination assays (MPHA) showed that maternal serum did not contain any antibodies which were reactive to 11 platelet-specific antigens, or to granulocyte antigens extracted from 9 persons. Lymphocyte cytotoxicity tests, however, showed that maternal serum but not infant serum had anti-HLA antibodies against both paternal and infant lymphocytes. Moreover, the maternal serum was found to have anti-HLA IgGs against platelet antigens extracted from the father and the infant. It is highly likely that this case of neonatal thrombocytopenia was caused by transplacental perfusion of maternal anti-HLA antibodies whose production was induced or enhanced by the allogenic leukocytes immunizations. ( info)

10/227. Human male infertility: chromosome anomalies, meiotic disorders, abnormal spermatozoa and recurrent abortion.

    Human male infertility is often related to chromosome abnormalities. In chromosomally normal infertile males, the rates of chromosome 21 and sex chromosome disomy in spermatozoa are increased. Higher incidences of trisomy 21 (seldom of paternal origin) and sex chromosome aneuploidy are also found. XXY and XYY patients produce increased numbers of XY, XX and YY spermatozoa, indicating an increased risk of production of XXY, XYY and XXX individuals. Since XXYs can reproduce using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), this could explain the slight increase of sex chromosome anomalies in ICSI series. Carriers of structural reorganizations produce unbalanced spermatozoa, and risk having children with duplications and/or deficiencies. In some cases, this risk is considerably lower or higher than average. These patients also show increased diploidy, and a higher risk of producing diandric triploids. Meiotic disorders are frequent in infertile males, and increase with severe oligoasthenozoospemia (OA) and/or high follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. These patients produce spermatozoa with autosomal and sex chromosome disomies, and diploid spermatozoa. Their contribution to recurrent abortion depends on the production of trisomies, monosomies and of triploids. The most frequent sperm chromosome anomaly in infertile males is diploidy, originated by either meiotic mutations or by a compromised testicular environment. ( info)
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