Cases reported "Abscess"

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1/172. Anterior cervical spinal epidural abscess in an infant.

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is rare in children, especially in newborns and infants, groups in which only very few cases have been reported. Because of the nonspecificity of presenting symptoms in children the diagnosis may be delayed, resulting in major permanent neurological deficits. In this paper, we report a case of cervical SEA in a 6-week-old infant who initially presented with fever and developed quadriparesis 19 days prior to admission. After emergency anterior decompression of the abscess the neurological function was improved immediately. Five months after surgery the neurological status was normal, an MR study showing disappearance of the epidural abscess and spinal cord indentation, and progressive fusion of the C3, C4 and C5 vertebral bodies. Anterior decompression without bone graft can provide an excellent prognosis in case of an anterior cervical SEA in infants.
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2/172. Staged operative treatment in a septic patient with an infected, unstable pelvis, and a missed bladder rupture.

    This case demonstrates once again the potential and serious complications of pelvic fractures, especially when associated urogenital injuries are missed. Missing the bladder rupture proved almost fatal to our patient. Second, it was confirmed that in very unstable pelvic fractures, external fixation alone does not provide enough stability. Local stability is the cornerstone in the treatment of (bone) infection, and in these cases, maximal stability is only obtainable with internal fixation. The advantages of metal implants in infected areas outweigh the disadvantages by far. For the bladder-rupture, we chose a two-stage approach. First, we performed a urinary diversion, to avoid surgical closure of the infiltrated bladder wall. All cavities, including the open bladder, were packed with omentum to fill the dead space with highly vital tissue to offer stout resistance to infection. Two years later, with the patient in excellent physical condition, urinary undiversion was carried out. Ultimately physical and social recovery was complete.
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3/172. Supracochlear approach to the petrous apex: case report and anatomic study.

    OBJECTIVE: The case of an 11-month old infant with petrous apex abscess drained through the supracochlear air cells prompted an anatomic study of the dimensions of this approach. Of the various approaches to the petrous apex, the supracochlear dissection has been the least described. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty temporal bones were dissected to completely expose the epitympanum. This required mastoidectomy, exenteration of zygomatic root and epitympanic air cells, and removal of the incus. Measurements were taken from three sides of a triangle described by the tegmen tympani (TT), tympanic facial nerve (TFN), and superior semicircular canal (SSCC). Similar measurements were obtained from standard coronal computerized tomographic (CT) scans from a random series of 20 patients. RESULTS: Mean lengths of the sides of the triangle were 7.0 mm (TT), 5.3 mm (TFN), and 4.8 mm (SSCC). The superior petrous apex air cells or marrow space was accessible through the supracochlear exposure in all specimens. Mean lengths from the coronal CT images were 4.2 mm (TT), 3.2 mm (TFN), and 8.45 mm (SSCC). CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that the supracochlear approach may provide adequate access to the superior petrous apex for drainage and biopsy in selected cases.
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4/172. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas.
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5/172. pyoderma gangrenosum with liver, spleen and bone involvement in a patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown aetiology. Visceral involvement by pyoderma gangrenosum is rare, the lung being the most frequent site of extracutaneous disease. We describe a 73-year-old man with pyoderma gangrenosum and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia in whom aseptic hepatosplenic abscesses and bony lesions were associated.
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6/172. Aeromonas abscess in an immunocompromised child.

    An 11-year-old immunocompromised child developed cellulitis and abscess due to aeromonas hydrophila at the site of bone marrow aspiration after swimming in a freshwater lake. The patient required treatment with intravenous antibiotics and surgical debridement to eradicate the infection. Both common and unusual organisms may complicate infections at the sites of percutaneous procedures.
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7/172. Report of a kindred with bone lesions and subcutaneous abscesses of unknown etiology.

    This case report concerns a 12-year-old boy who had a 9-year history of mandibular lesions of unknown origin. The mandible showed changes resembling chronic osteomyelitis. The tibia and temporal bone also exhibited radiolucencies. Many subcutaneous abscesses were present. The boy died at the age of 14 years as a result of rupture of the aorta. In his family, there were seven members who had bone lesions and eleven who suffered from skin abscesses.
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8/172. liposarcoma involving the periodontal tissues. A case report.

    Liposarcomas constitute 15 to 20% of all soft tissue tumors. They are extremely rare in the head and neck and in the oral cavity. A 30-year-old patient was seen for a soft, painless mass in the right palate. Through panoramic radiography it was possible to observe a radiolucent area with sharp margins in the right upper quadrant. The lesion, after an incisional biopsy, was diagnosed as a "myxoid liposarcoma." The patient underwent a wide excision of the lesion with bone laminectomy and he is well at a 4-year follow-up. The differential diagnosis included salivary gland tumors and palatal abscess.
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9/172. Reconstruction of upper chest wall defects with a function-preserving pectoralis major muscle flap: case report.

    The pectoralis major muscle or myocutaneous flap has a nearly 100% success rate in reconstructing chest wall defects. Major adverse sequelae resulting from the use of the pectoralis major muscle or myocutaneous flap are rarely reported in the literature. However, the loss of pectoralis major muscle function caused by the detachment of the muscle from its insertion on the humeral bone is of more and more concern. This is a significant loss for manual laborers when the patient tries to handle tools or control heavy machinery. A case of upper sternal osteomyelitis is reported. After wide debridement with partial excision of the sternum, the second and third ribs, the right pleura, and the lung were exposed. A right unilateral pectoralis major muscle flap was transposed to restore the defect. In addition, to preserve the lateral portion of the muscle and its insertion on the humerus, the origin of the lower sternocostal part of the pectoralis major muscle was transposed to the medial clavicle and residual upper sternum. In this way, not only was the chest wall defect reconstructed but the function of the residual pectoralis major muscle was also preserved. Postoperative follow-up at one year demonstrated no arm weakness, no limitation in shoulder range of motion, and no evidence of atrophy of the transposed pectoralis major muscle. Our experience with this function-preserving pectoralis major muscle flap was encouraging and we suggest it be employed in the reconstruction of the upper anterior chest wall.
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10/172. Disseminated BCG infection following bone marrow transplantation for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    An 8-month-old boy with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) developed disseminated bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection following BCG vaccination at birth. He initially presented with an abscess at the site of BCG vaccination and was begun on three-drug antituberculous treatment (rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinimide). Dissemination was subclinical prior to a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical bone marrow transplant (BMT) from his sister, following which he presented with an acute erythroderma. A skin biopsy specimen revealed granulomas with epithelial histiocytes and giant cells in the reticular dermis, and numerous acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were present on Ziehl-Nielsen stain. A diagnosis of disseminated BCG disease was made. Despite the addition of a fourth antituberculous agent, ethambutol, he did not recover and developed numerous skin abscesses over the following weeks. Examination of pus from these lesions demonstrated numerous AFB. clarithromycin was added as a fifth antituberculous agent. Despite five-drug antituberculous therapy and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin infusions, recurrent abscesses containing AFB developed intermittently until 7 months posttransplant. At follow-up 1 year post-BMT he showed good general physical improvement. All abscesses had healed with scarring, and no further skin lesions had occurred.
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