Cases reported "Accessory Nerve Diseases"

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1/18. Trapezius CMAP amplitude asymmetry in accessory neuropathy.

    In accessory neuropathy electrodiagnosis, upper trapezius compound muscle action potential (CMAP) latencies and amplitudes are commonly measured. The few prior reports describing middle and lower trapezius recording have traditionally emphasized latency value determination. The utility of amplitude measurement with middle and lower trapezius recording has not, to our knowledge, been previously described in individual patients with accessory neuropathy. We report three patients (A-C) who developed unilateral accessory neuropathy following surgical procedures. accessory nerve conduction studies were performed with surface recording over the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles. Latency values were normal except for a prolonged lower trapezius latency value in patient B. Side-side trapezius amplitude comparisons revealed striking asymmetries from all three recording sites in patients A and B (71-95% CMAP amplitude decrements) and in the lower trapezius recording of patient C. Middle and lower trapezius side-side CMAP amplitude comparisons may increase the sensitivity of accessory neuropathy electrodiagnosis. ( info)

2/18. Intraspinal schwannoma of the accessory nerve.

    The second example of a schwannoma originating from the cervical portion of the accessory nerve is reported. The tumour was diagnosed by MRI and confirmed by surgery. The tumour was small and was located entirely within the cervical subarachnoid space without causing any detectable neurological deficit. ( info)

3/18. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the spinal accessory nerve.

    A 50-year-old man presented with a left-sided neck mass. Clinical examination revealed a large fluctuant 7 cm x 7 cm mass in the left posterior triangle. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an encapsulated soft tissue lesion. He underwent exploration of the neck and a 14 cm by 8 cm mass enfolding the accessory nerve was identified and completely excised. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed features in keeping with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST). We present the clinical and pathological features of this condition. ( info)

4/18. Jefferson fracture resulting in Collet-Sicard syndrome.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report and review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of and add to the spectrum of injury that can result from Jefferson fractures, to suggest a possible mechanism of injury, and to give a brief review of pertinent facts regarding C1 burst fractures and the Collet-Sicard syndrome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported case of a Jefferson fracture resulting in Collet-Sicard syndrome. It represents only the second reported case of cranial nerve palsy caused by Jefferson fracture. methods: A 56-year-old man sustained a C1 burst fracture in a rollover motor vehicle accident. Repeated neurologic examinations over the ensuing days revealed lesions of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII on the left side. RESULTS: Two weeks of traction, 10 weeks in a halo vest, and 2 weeks in a cervical collar resulted in adequate fracture healing and almost complete resolution of the patient's neurologic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Although this is the first reported case of Collet-Sicard syndrome caused by Jefferson fracture, the authors' review of the literature suggests that cranial nerve injuries may go unrecognized in some patients with C1 burst fractures. The importance of a thorough neurologic examination, including examination of the cranial nerves, in all cases of cervical spine injury cannot be overemphasized. ( info)

5/18. Spasmodic torticollis due to neurovascular compression of the spinal accessory nerve by the anteroinferior cerebellar artery: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Spasmodic torticollis is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by uncontrollable clonic and intermittently tonic spasm of the neck muscles. We report a case of spasmodic torticollis attributable to neurovascular compression of the right XIth cranial nerve by the right anteroinferior cerebellar artery (AICA). CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old man with a 2-year history of right spasmodic torticollis underwent magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated compression of the right XIth cranial nerve by an abnormal descending loop of the right AICA. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent microvascular decompression surgery. During surgery, it was confirmed that an abnormal loop of the right AICA was compressing the right accessory nerve. Compression was released by the interposition of muscle between the artery and the nerve. CONCLUSION: The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and his symptoms were fully relieved at the 2-year follow-up examination. This is the first reported case of spasmodic torticollis attributable to compression by the AICA; usually, the blood vessels involved are the vertebral artery and the posteroinferior cerebellar artery. ( info)

6/18. Lemierre's syndrome: a complication of acute oropharyngitis.

    Lemierre's syndrome is a recognized but infrequently seen complication of acute oropharyngitis. In this case report the patient presented with acute sore throat that led to a bacteraemia with internal jugular vein thrombosis and subsequent cranial nerve palsies. ( info)

7/18. Physical therapy for spinal accessory nerve injury complicated by adhesive capsulitis.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The authors found no literature describing adhesive capsulitis as a consequence of spinal accessory nerve injury and no exercise program or protocol for patients with spinal accessory nerve injury. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a patient with adhesive capsulitis and spinal accessory nerve injury following a carotid endarterectomy. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 67-year-old woman referred for physical therapy following manipulation of the left shoulder and a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis by her orthopedist. Spinal accessory nerve injury was identified during the initial physical therapy examination, and a program of neuromuscular electrical stimulation was initiated. OUTCOMES: The patient had almost full restoration of the involved muscle function after 5 months of physical therapy. DISCUSSION: This case report illustrates the importance of accurate diagnosis and suggests physical therapy intervention to manage adhesive capsulitis as a consequence of spinal accessory nerve injury. ( info)

8/18. Spinal accessory mononeuropathy following posterior fossa decompression surgery.

    Isolated injury of the spinal accessory nerve is a well-recognized complication of surgeries involving the posterior triangle of the neck. The procedures most commonly implicated are lymph node biopsy and carotid endarterectomy. We present a patient with isolated injury to the spinal accessory nerve, localized proximal to the innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which was noted following suboccipital decompression for an arnold-chiari malformation. To our knowledge, this association has not been previously reported. ( info)

9/18. ultrasonography of the accessory nerve: normal and pathologic findings in cadavers and patients with iatrogenic accessory nerve palsy.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of ultrasonography in detecting the normal accessory nerve as well as pathologic changes in cases of accessory nerve palsy. methods: Four patients with accessory nerve palsy were investigated by ultrasonography. Three cases of accessory nerve palsy after lymph node biopsy and neck dissection were primarily diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography using a 5- to 12-MHz linear transducer. In addition, we performed ultrasonography in 3 cadaveric specimens to show the feasibility of detecting the accessory nerve. RESULT: Nerve transection (n = 2), scar tissue (n = 1), and atrophy of the trapezius muscle (n = 4) were confirmed by electroneurographic testing and surgical nerve inspection. In 1 case in which a patient had a whiplash injury with accessory nerve palsy, ultrasonography showed atrophy of the trapezius muscle with a normal nerve appearance. CONCLUSIONS: ultrasonography allows visualization of the normal accessory nerve as well as changes after accessory nerve palsy. ( info)

10/18. Schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve in the cisterna magna.

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial schwannoma of the accessory nerve can be divided into two types. One is a jugular foramen type arising from the accessory nerve of the jugular foramen, while the other is an intracisternal type, which arises from the spinal root of the accessory nerve and is separate from the jugular foramen. The latter type is rare, and only 9 cases have been reported previously. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 46-year-old female presented with a large, midline mass lesion in the posterior fossa manifesting as foramen magnum syndrome. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a huge tumor with cystic lesion located in the cisterna magna with extension to the C1 spinal level. The tumor was totally removed by a suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. It originated from the spinal root of the right accessory nerve. Temporary slight atrophy of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle was observed, but the patient was free of disease 2 years after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We report a schwannoma of the spinal accessory nerve in the cisterna magna. The clinical and neuroradiological findings are discussed with a review of the literature. The initial symptoms were variable without loss of function of the cranial nerve, and the tumor tended to grow in the cisterna magna without laterality. Because of the absence of typical neurologic symptoms, early neuroradiological investigation by MRI is recommended for accurate diagnosis of these tumors. ( info)
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