Cases reported "Accessory Nerve Injuries"

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1/18. Abdominal distention and shock in an infant.

    Acute abdominal distention in the pediatric patient may be attributable to extraperitoneal fluid, masses, organomegaly, air, an ileus, a functional or mechanical bowel obstruction, or injury and blood secondary to trauma. An infant who presents to the emergency department with acute abdominal distention and shock is a true emergency for which the differential diagnosis is extensive. An unusual case of abdominal distention, ascites, hematochezia, and shock in an infant, subsequently found to have spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct is reported. This uncommon cause of abdominal distention and shock in an infant is many times left out of the differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen. The presentation may be as an uncommon acute form or a classis subacute type. This patient had hematochezia, which had not been previously reported in association with this entity. Failure to recognize and treat an acute abdomen can result in high mortality.
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2/18. Sigmoid colon rupture secondary to Crede's method in a patient with spinal cord injury.

    Crede's method is a manual suprapubic pressure exerted with a clenched fist or fingers, used to initiate micturition, in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) who have neurovesical dysfunction. It is usually a benign maneuver unassociated with any major complications. This paper will illustrate a case report involving a sigmoid colon rupture secondary to Crede's method in a patient with SCI. Various techniques of Crede's method are briefly described. It is recommended that patients with quadriplegia avoid forceful use of Crede's method, as it may cause contusion of the abdominal wall and injuries to internal viscera, possibly leading to colonic rupture. It is believed that this is the first reported case of such an unusual complication of Crede's method in patients with SCI.
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3/18. Delayed splenic rupture: an unusual cause of acute surgical abdomen.

    Authors describe an unusual case of acute abdomen after the traffic injury. They remind correct diagnosis of delayed splenic rupture and compare it with other literature findings.
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4/18. Fulminant ischaemic colitis with atypical clinical features complicating sickle cell disease.

    Clinically significant ischaemic bowel injury is an exceedingly rare complication of sickle cell disease. It manifests as acute surgical abdomen and may respond to conservative treatment. An unusual fatal case of ischaemic colitis with minimal abdominal findings in a young male during a sickle cell vaso-occlusive pain crisis is described. This case demonstrates that an acute surgical abdomen should be considered in such patients who fail to respond to conservative management as untreated this condition may be fatal.
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5/18. Gastric perforation due to the ingestion of a hollow toothpick: report of a case.

    A perforation due to the ingestion of a toothpick is a condition seldom seen in the stomach. We herein describe an 80-year-old woman with a perforation of the stomach due to an ingested hollow toothpick. The toothpick was easily removed during a mini-laparotomy. The site of perforation was closed with absorbable sutures and omentum was used to function as an overlying patch. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. The hollow toothpick functioned as a fistula between the contents of the stomach and the peritoneal cavity. This resulted in a very different clinical picture from that observed in "classical wooden" toothpick injury, where the toothpick is not able to function as a fistula. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a hollow toothpick perforating the stomach. A hollow toothpick perforation must be considered in any patient with symptoms of intestinal perforation, even when there is no history of swallowing toothpicks. Removal of a toothpick and subsequent suturing of the puncture site is a simple and relatively minor surgical procedure, which may have a lower morbidity and mortality as compared to other causes of gastric perforation. A precaution to observe, is the potential danger that one of the members of the operating team might perforate a finger.
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6/18. pain as a presenting feature of acute abdomen in spinal injuries.

    The diagnosis of acute abdomen can be difficult in patients with spinal injuries. We reviewed all the 1039 case records of patients admitted with spinal injuries to the Queen Elizabeth National spinal injuries Unit, Glasgow over a 7-year-period and found 5 (0.48%) cases of acute abdomen that required surgical intervention and were not caused by original injury. Their presenting signs and symptoms were analysed. pain was found to be an unreliable symptom in these patients.
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7/18. diagnosis of the acute abdomen in the neurologically stable spinal cord-injured patient. A case study.

    The diagnosis of the acute abdomen in the spinal cord injured patient is difficult. Diagnoses are often so delayed that approximately 10% of these patients die of acute abdominal problems. The presentation also varies with the level and duration of injury. An understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of the abdominal wall and viscera aids in timely diagnosis. I present an illustrative case and describe the pertinent functional neuroanatomy.
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8/18. Peritoneoscopic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheter and bowel perforation: experience of an interventional nephrology program.

    BACKGROUND: Bowel perforation is an uncommon but serious complication of peritoneoscopic peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion. The approach to diagnosis of bowel perforation utilizing this technique has not been previously published. The authors report their experience with the diagnosis and management of bowel perforation in the context of peritoneoscopic placement of PD catheters. methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 750 PD catheters inserted over a 12-year period (January 1991 to May 2003) utilizing peritoneoscopic technique. RESULTS: Six (0.8%) patients experienced bowel perforation during the procedure. The diagnosis was made immediately during the procedure in 5 (83%) of the 6 patients. Of these 5, peritoneoscopy confirmed intrabowel position of the cannula by visualizing bowel mucosa (n = 3) and hard stool (n = 1). The fifth patient showed extrusion of fecal matter upon trocar withdrawal before peritoneoscopy. All 5 had emanation of foul-smelling gas through the cannula. Bowel rest and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics were initiated. Of the 5, 1 required surgery, whereas the others were discharged home after 3 days. The sixth patient had fever, severe peritoneal irritation, and polymicrobial peritonitis the morning after the procedure. In this patient, no evidence of bowel injury was noted during the procedure except for brief emanation of foul-smelling gas. He required surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Bowel perforation can be diagnosed immediately in most patients undergoing peritoneoscopic PD catheter insertion. A majority of these patients can be treated medically. The surgical team should be consulted if the patient shows clinical deterioration or has signs of peritoneal irritation.
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9/18. Systemic multiple aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery, intracranial vertebral artery, and visceral arteries: case report.

    A rare case of systemic multiple aneurysms located in the extracranial internal carotid artery, intracranial vertebral artery, and intraperitonial arteries is described. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with suspected rupture of an aneurysm of the right extracranial internal carotid artery. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a giant aneurysm in the right extracranial internal carotid artery and an aneurysm of fusiform type of the left intracranial vertebral artery. The extracranial carotid artery aneurysm was successfully resected, with end-to-end anastomosis of the internal carotid artery, preserving the cranial nerves. Five days later, an aneurysm of the left hepatic artery ruptured unexpectedly and was treated with emergency surgery. Other aneurysms in the liver and spleen were identified on postoperative celiac angiography. The patient subsequently underwent an operation for a left intracranial vertebral artery aneurysm by proximal clipping.
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10/18. Intestinal injury after lumbar discectomy.

    In a review of 5,200 lumbar discectomies performed from 1974 to 1989, two patients sustained a ventral perforation of the disc space followed by isolated small intestinal injury. Both patients underwent lumbar discectomy at the lumbosacral junction and presented with signs and symptoms of acute abdominal distress within three days after the operation. At surgical laparotomy, small tears were noted in the ileum, which were closed primarily. The patients had an uneventful recovery. The results of a review of 11 instances reported in the literature suggest that isolated intestinal injuries usually occur postoperatively at the lumbosacral junction and involve the small intestine. Factors, such as body habitus, surgical experience, patient positioning and types of instruments, as well as the use of a surgical microscope, do not appear to modify the risk of intestinal injury. After discectomy, patients may present with acute abdominal signs and symptoms or chronic wound infections. work-up studies include evaluation of vascular structures and ureters either roentgenographically or at abdominal exploration. A high index of suspicion and adequate disc space visualization during discectomy may reduce the incidence of this complication.
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