Cases reported "Achlorhydria"

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1/11. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis with hypergastrinemia.

    Elevation in fasting serum gastrin levels was found in three patients being evaluated for persistent upper abdominal pain without radiographic evidence of peptic ulcer disease. Fiberoptic endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract in each patient revealed characteristic changes of chronic atrophic gastritis. Gastric biopsies showed diffuse chronic inflammation in the lamina propria, a decrease in the number of parietal cells, and "intestinalization" of gastric mucosa. Total achlorhydria was demonstrated after a maximal histalog stimulus; however, serum levels of vitamin B12 and schilling test values were normal in all three patients. Parietal cell antibodies were found in the serum in all patients in a dilution of 1:20 to 1:80. These cases represent autoimmune (type A) chronic atrophic gastritis and should be distinguished from chronic simple (type B) gastritis, in which serum gastrin levels are normal and no parietal cell antibodies are found in the serum. patients with autoimmune gastritis should be observed at frequent intervals for the occurrence of pernicious anemia or gastric carcinoma.
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2/11. Symptomatic hypergastrinaemia with achlorhydria: reflief by antrectomy.

    A women had hypergastrinaemia associated with the variety of gastritis (Type A) that is associated usually with pernicious anaemia, together with recurring bouts of severe abdominal pain. fasting serum gastrin levels ranged between 600 and 2750 pg/ml. There was a rise in serum gastrin levels after a standard protein meal, indicative of a large G cell mass, and a fall after intragastric HCI, which led to a trial of treatment with HCI; this gave some symptomatic relief. After surgical antrectomy there was a profound fall of serum gastrin from a pre-operative level of 2500 pg/ml to constant values of 16--25 pg/ml, and complete and lasting relief from the bouts of abdominal pain.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = gastritis
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3/11. Effect of omeprazole on oral iron replacement in patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    Hypochlorhydric states such as atrophic gastritis and partial gastrectomy have long been known to cause iron deficiency anemia. However, studies to date have failed to show a similar association with omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor that also produces achlorhydria. These studies, however, have primarily involved nonanemic, iron-replete individuals. The effect of the drug has not been studied in patients with established iron deficiency, and to our knowledge the patients presented here are the first of their kind to be reported. Our observations support the probability that the profound hypochlorhydria induced by omeprazole may indeed impair the optimal absorption of orally administered iron in iron-deficient individuals, precluding them from obtaining therapeutically adequate amounts to establish the positive balance necessary for the resolution of anemia and the replenishment of stores. The possible explanations for this phenomenon are also discussed.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = gastritis
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4/11. achlorhydria, parietal cell hyperplasia, and multiple gastric carcinoids: a new disorder.

    We describe a 54-year-old woman who had multiple gastric carcinoid tumors arising in the setting of marked hypergastrinemia associated with a lack of acid production by hypertrophic parietal cells. The serum gastrin level was 1,400 pg/mL, and investigation revealed no evidence for either of the recognized causes for hypergastrinemia-associated carcinoids, autoimmune gastritis, and Zollinger-Ellision syndrome. Partial gastrectomy was performed. Pathologic examination showed multiple intramucosal and invasive carcinoid tumors of the body and fundus in a background of marked ECL cell hyperplasia. There were no gastric or duodenal ulcerations. One perigastric lymph node was metastatically involved. The oxyntic mucosa showed marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the parietal cells. Some of these cells were vacuolated, and many displayed protrusions of apical cytoplasm into dilated oxyntic glands filled with inspissated eosinophilic material. Similar findings have occurred in 1 other patient, strongly indicating that the clinicopathologic alterations in the 2 cases are not random but, on the contrary, represent a very rare disorder of gastric carcinoids associated with an intrinsic acid secretion abnormality of the parietal cells.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = gastritis
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5/11. Multiple gastric carcinoid tumours associated with atrophic gastritis.

    A case of multiple gastric carcinoid tumours is described in an elderly man with atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia. This case provides further evidence of an association between hypochlorrhydric states and some gastric endocrine tumours.
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ranking = 0.625
keywords = gastritis
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6/11. Multifocal gastric carcinoid tumours, achlorhydria, and hypergastrinaemia.

    Multiple polypoidal carcinoid tumours of the stomach were found in 5 patients with achlorhydria (4 of whom had pernicious anaemia) as a result of autoimmune atrophic gastritis. The tumours were small (nearly all less than 1 cm diameter) and appeared to grow very slowly, if at all; no significant enlargement or complications were seen during periods of observation of up to 6 years. No extragastric hormonal syndromes were identified. They differed from the carcinoid tumours usually found in the intestinal tract by being composed of argyrophil (not argentaffin) cells of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) type. fasting plasma levels of gastrin, which is believed to be trophic to ECL cells, were very high in all patients. Thus, chronic hyperplasia of gastric ECL cells (as a result of hypergastrinaemia) may have been responsible for development of the tumours. Long-term, uninterrupted achlorhydria produced by potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion might therefore predispose to carcinoid tumours of the stomach.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = gastritis
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7/11. Multifocal adenocarcinoma of the stomach in a child with common variable immunodeficiency.

    The clinical course of a child who developed an adenocarcinoma of the stomach at 11 years of age is described. At 6 years of age, the child was evaluated for abdominal pain, weight loss, and vomiting. She was found to have hemorrhagic, atrophic gastritis, achlorhydria, and panhypogammaglobulinemia. The gastritis improved with corticosteroid therapy, but relapsed each time that the steroid dosage was tapered. The clinical course was marked by severe growth failure, recurrent infections, and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiographic studies done when the patient was 11 years of age demonstrated a large fungating mass on the lesser curvature of the stomach. endoscopy and biopsies done 1 year previously had not revealed any sign of malignancy. A radical gastrectomy was performed. Microscopic studies revealed multifocal adenocarcinoma of the stomach with no evidence of invasion of the submucosa or local lymph nodes. The patient died of candida septicemia and pneumonia 6 months after the gastrectomy. There was no evidence of recurrence of the tumor on autopsy. The relationship between common variable immunodeficiency and gastrointestinal disease is described.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gastritis
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8/11. Iatrogenic campylobacter pylori infection is a cause of epidemic achlorhydria.

    On a number of occasions, there have been descriptions of epidemic achlorhydria in subjects undergoing repeated gastric secretory studies, typically as part of research protocols. We observed a case in a 37-yr-old healthy man undergoing weekly gastric analyses, along with endoscopy and gastric biopsy, as part of a research protocol studying gastric adaptation to aspirin. In the middle of the 2nd wk of aspirin administration, he developed severe nausea and epigastric discomfort. aspirin administration was discontinued, but, as per protocol, gastric analyses, endoscopies, and biopsies were continued. Compared to the week preceding the acute illness, biochemical analyses showed a transient 7.4-fold increase in basal gastric acid, 3.6-fold increase in pepsin secretion, 8.8-fold increase in dna loss, 5.6-fold increase in mucus secretion, and 12-fold increase in gastric bleeding. Basal acid secretion was zero, and pepsin secretion was one-third of control during the 2nd wk of the infection. endoscopy at the time of symptoms showed erosions in the gastric body and antrum, as well as numerous mucosal hemorrhages and an acute ulcer in the antrum. endoscopy 7 days later revealed that the gastric mucosa had almost completely recovered, with only a shallow erosion seen at the site of the previous ulcer. Gastric biopsies were normal before and during the first 2 wk of aspirin ingestion. Gastric biopsies taken at the time of the acute illness (associated with increased basal acid secretion) showed marked acute inflammation of the antrum with many campylobacter pylori bacilli. At that time, neither acute inflammation nor C. pylori were found in biopsies from the body of the stomach. Biopsies obtained 1 wk later (zero basal acid) showed acute inflammation of both the gastric body and antrum. One week later, biopsies from the gastric body showed mild focal acute inflammation, moderate chronic inflammation, and an occasional lymphoid follicle; the gastric antrum showed chronic inflammation. Antral biopsies obtained 2 yr later showed persistent chronic gastritis with prominent lymphoid follicles and scattered foci of acute inflammatory cells; C. pylori bacilli were still present, but were less apparent. We believe that the syndrome of acute (epidemic) gastritis is often iatrogenic C. pylori infection. Our case shows that increased basal acid and pepsin secretion occur before onset of basal acid hypochlorhydria in the acute phase of C. pylori infection.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gastritis
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9/11. Epidemic gastritis with hypochlorhydria.

    Seventeen of 37 healthy volunteers participating in studies of acid secretion and 1 patient with zollinger-ellison syndrome became rapidly and profoundly hypochlorhydric. A mild illness with epigastric pain occurred in 9 subjects, usually several days before detection of hypochlorhydria. Gastric mucosal biopsy specimens taken from subjects during hypochlorhydria revealed severe fundal and antral gastritis; however, even when acid secretion was severely depressed, parietal cells were abundant and appeared normal histologically. During hypochlorhydria, gastric permeability to hydrogen, sodium, and lithium was normal in 4 subjects. serum gastrin concentrations were usually normal, whereas serum pepsinogen concentrations were invariably elevated. serum parietal cell antibodies were not present. Acid secretion returned to near baseline levels in 14 of 17 subjects after a mean of 126 days (range 53--235); severity of gastritis diminished concurrently in 7 of 10 subjects on whom biopsies were serially performed. An infectious etiology is suspected, although serologic studies and bacterial and conventional viral cultures of stool and gastric juice have not identified a candidate agent.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = gastritis
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10/11. Intestinal metaplasia, not atrophy or achlorhydria, creates a hostile environment for helicobacter pylori.

    A 54-year-old man with dyspepsia, helicobacter pylori-associated chronic active atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia, and hyperplastic gastric polyps was followed up for 1 year after H. pylori eradication with sequential endoscopic gastric mucosal mapping and gastric function tests. Eradication of H. pylori by triple therapy resulted in the histologic resolution of gastritis. However, the patient's condition, gastric function, and morphology of the polyps were not affected. This case illustrates that: a) in the absence of intestinal metaplasia, H. pylori can infect the stomach with gastric atrophy; b) the absence of acid does not preclude H. pylori infection; c) advanced atrophic gastritis may be an irreversible condition; and (d) the neutrophilic infiltrate in hyperplastic polyps is independent of the presence of H. pylori.
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ranking = 0.375
keywords = gastritis
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