Cases reported "Acidosis, Lactic"

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1/4. Lactic acidosis in an hiv-infected patient receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    BACKGROUND: A 51-year-old man with hiv infection on highly active antiretroviral therapy presented with abdominal pain and exertional dyspnea. physical examination revealed increased respiration and cachexia. Laboratory tests showed a lactic acid concentration elevated to 6.4 mM. INVESTIGATION: physical examination, blood chemistry, arterial blood gas, urine analysis, chest X-ray, and ultrasound of liver. diagnosis: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-induced lactic acidosis, hepatitis and chemical pancreatitis. Proximal renal tubular acidosis with Fanconi's syndrome, secondary to treatment with tenofovir. MANAGEMENT: The patient was supported on intravenous and oral bicarbonate, riboflavin and phosphorus supplementation. Highly active antiretroviral therapy was discontinued. The patient's lactate level decreased about 2 weeks after discharge.
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ranking = 1
keywords = respiration
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2/4. Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cerebral glycolysis in children with congenital lactic acidosis.

    Congenital lactic acidosis with neurological symptoms may be due to a variety of disorders of energy metabolism. We investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) are capable of demonstrating specific changes to facilitate diagnosis. A corresponding increase of cerebral lactate (with MRS) and rate of glycolysis (with PET) was observed in 2 children with biochemical evidence of defective mitochondrial respiration. No such increase was noted in a child with lactic acidosis due to stress and exercise but normal respiratory chain activity, and in a control case with an epilepsy syndrome without evidence of primary changes of energy metabolism. The results suggest that defects of oxidative phosphorylation may cause a massive increase of glycolysis to cover energy requirements, with corresponding accumulation of lactate in brain tissue. This mechanism can now be demonstrated in vivo and, with further experience, may potentially be used as a diagnostic marker of respiratory chain disorders in brain tissue.
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ranking = 1
keywords = respiration
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3/4. Deficiency of the adenine nucleotide translocator in muscle of a patient with myopathy and lactic acidosis: a new mitochondrial defect.

    In a patient with a mitochondrial myopathy, presenting with lactic acidosis, 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in resting muscle showed half the creatine phosphate level of controls. The creatine phosphate resynthesis rate after aerobic exercise was only 18% of that in controls. However, the activities of complexes I to V catalyzing oxidative phosphorylation and the pyruvate and the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes showed a 2- to 20-fold increase. In line with this, the uncoupled mitochondrial respiration rate was significantly higher than in controls. In contrast, the respiration of the mitochondria from the patient was less stimulated by ADP than that of control mitochondria. This finding could point to a defect in complex V, the enzyme directly involved in ATP synthesis. The activity of complex V, measured as the mitochondrial ATPase activity, and its concentration, as judged from Western blots using antisera against the F1 part of complex V, were, however, also greatly increased in the patient. Alternatively, the transport system, importing ADP into and exporting ATP out of the mitochondrial matrix, the ADP/ATP or adenine nucleotide translocator, could be affected. Immunostaining of Western blots revealed a 4-fold decrease in the concentration of the adenine nucleotide translocator in the patient. Because oxidative phosphorylation was not disturbed in fibroblasts and lymphocytes, we conclude that this patient suffers from a muscle-specific deficiency of his mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator, a defect unknown so far.
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ranking = 2
keywords = respiration
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4/4. Clinical and biochemical aspects of thiamine treatment for metabolic acidosis during total parenteral nutrition.

    We encountered six cases of total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated lactic acidosis during the 6-y period of 1988-1993. The patients were characterized by severe disease of the digestive organs, minimal food intake before surgery, and postoperative TPN with no food intake and with no vitamin supplements. Within 4 wk of TPN, they developed hypotension (< or = 80/60 mmHg), Kussmaul's respiration, and clouding of consciousness, as well as abdominal pain not directly related to the underlying disease. Routine laboratory examinations revealed no acute aggravation in hepatic, renal, or pancreatic functions. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH < or = 7.134 and base excess < or = -17.5 mmol/L. Additional laboratory examinations revealed serum lactate > or = 10.9 mmol/L, serum pyruvate > or = 159 mumol/L, and lactate/pyruvate ratio > or = 0.029. None of the patients responded to sodium bicarbonate or other conventional emergency treatments for shock and lactic acidosis. After the first case, we suspected that thiamine deficiency might be responsible for this pathologic condition, serum thiamine was proved to be < or = 196 nmol/L in 5 patients. Thiamine replenishment at intravenous doses of 100 mg every 12 h resolved lactic acidosis and improved the clinical condition in 3 patients. This article includes a review of 11 relevant reports published from 1982-1992 and a discussion of the biochemical mechanism of onset of thiamine deficiency-associated lactic acidosis. We emphasize the needs (1) to supplement TPN with thiamine-containing vitamins for the patients whose food intake does not meet nutritional requirements; (2) to monitor the patients routinely measuring serum thiamine concentration and erythrocyte transketolase activity during TPN; and (3) to intravenously replenish using high-dose thiamine simultaneously with the manifestation of signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = respiration
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