Cases reported "Acidosis, Renal Tubular"

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1/19. Distal renal tubular acidosis and high urine carbon dioxide tension in a patient with southeast Asian ovalocytosis.

    Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) is the best-documented disease in which mutation in the anion exchanger-1 (AE1) causes decreased anion (chloride [Cl-]/bicarbonate [HCO3-]) transport. Because AE1 is also found in the basolateral membrane of type A intercalated cells of the kidney, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) might develop if the function of AE1 is critical for the net excretion of acid. Studies were performed in a 33-year-old woman with SAO who presented with proximal muscle weakness, hypokalemia (potassium, 2.7 mmol/L), a normal anion gap type of metabolic acidosis (venous plasma pH, 7. 32; bicarbonate, 17 mmol/L; anion gap, 11 mEq/L), and a low rate of ammonium (NH4 ) excretion in the face of metabolic acidosis (26 micromol/min). However, the capacity to produce NH4 did not appear to be low because during a furosemide-induced diuresis, NH4 excretion increased almost threefold to a near-normal value (75 micromol/L/min). Nevertheless, her minimum urine pH (6.3) did not decrease appreciably with this diuresis. The basis of the renal acidification defect was most likely a low distal H secretion rate, the result of an alkalinized type A intercalated cell in the distal nephron. Unexpectedly, when her urine pH increased to 7.7 after sodium bicarbonate administration, her urine minus blood carbon dioxide tension difference (U-B Pco2) was 27 mm Hg. We speculate that the increase in U-B Pco2 might arise from a misdirection of AE1 to the apical membrane of type A intercalated cells.
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2/19. Genetic and long-term data on a patient with permanent isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis.

    A 12-year-old girl presented with permanent isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA), glaucoma, band keratopathy, mild cataract and short stature. Severe metabolic acidosis was caused by the impairment of bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubules and alkali therapy improved her acidaemia. A homozygous G to A transition at nucleotide 1,678 in the basolateral kidney type Na /HCO3- (kNBC) cotransporter gene SLC4A4, which is critical in HCO3- resorption in renal proximal tubules, was identified. Her height and height velocity (HV) were very low (-4.0 SD and -4.4 SD, respectively) before alkali treatment, but both improved after initiating alkali therapy at the age of 2 years and 3 months. The patient's body height and HV were 131.5 cm (-2.7 SD) and 4.0 cm (-2.0 SD), respectively at the age of 12 years. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates that early administration of alkali therapy and sustained correction of acidosis, even if inadequate to correct the metabolic acidosis, can markedly improves growth in permanent isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis.
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3/19. Unusual renal features of Lowe syndrome in a mildly affected boy.

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, mental retardation, and renal tubular dysfunction. The gene responsible for OCRL was identified by positional cloning and encodes a lipid phosphatase, phosphatidylinositol 4,5, bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]5-phosphatase, which localizes to the golgi apparatus and is suspected to play a role in Golgi vesicular transport [Suchy et al., 1995]. In addition to the ocular and renal manifestations, most boys with OCRL have cognitive problems and maladaptive behaviors including tantrums and stereotypies. We report a boy with a history of congenital cataracts and mild developmental delay who was also found to have hematuria with proteinuria but minimal signs of renal tubular dysfunction. Subsequent renal biopsy was compatible with a diagnosis of a noncomplement fixating chronic glomerulonephritis. Despite the atypical renal findings, skin fibroblast analysis for PtdIns (4,5)P2 5-phosphatase was performed, and enzyme activity was low, consistent with the diagnosis of OCRL. Western blot analysis from cell lysates showed the ocrl protein was decreased in size and amount. Our report shows atypical renal features of OCRL in a mildly affected boy. The possibility of OCRL should be considered in boys with cataracts and glomerular disease, even in the absence of renal tubular defects and frank mental retardation usually associated with the syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 95:461-466, 2000. Published Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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4/19. Novel nonsense mutation in the Na /HCO3- cotransporter gene (SLC4A4) in a patient with permanent isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis and bilateral glaucoma.

    Permanent isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) with ocular abnormalities is a systemic disease involving short stature, isolated pRTA, mental retardation, and ocular abnormalities. kidney Na /HCO3- cotransporter (kNBC1) cDNA from peripheral lymphocytes from a patient with permanent isolated pRTA and bilateral glaucoma was screened, and a novel homozygous mutation, namely a cytosine-to-thymine transition at nucleotide 234, which resulted in the formation of a stop codon at codon 29, was identified. This homozygous mutation, Q29X, was identified in the unique 5'-end of the kNBC1 gene (SLC4A4) of the patient. Cosegregation of this Q29X mutation with the disease and heterozygosity in the parents of the affected patient were observed. The absence of this mutation in 156 alleles from 78 Japanese individuals indicates that this mutation is directly related to the disease and is not a common dna sequence polymorphism. This nonsense mutation predicts a truncated kNBC1 protein that lacks the 1007 amino acids of the carboxyl-terminus, and the effect on kNBC1 cotransport activity is likely to be a loss of function. In contrast, the pancreatic Na /HCO3- cotransporter of the patient is not likely to be affected by this nonsense mutation. These results have implications for understanding the role of kNBC1 in the pathophysiologic processes of pRTA associated with ocular abnormalities and mental retardation.
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5/19. Band 3 Walton, a C-terminal deletion associated with distal renal tubular acidosis, is expressed in the red cell membrane but retained internally in kidney cells.

    Human band 3 Walton is an AE1 mutation that results in the deletion of the 11 COOH-terminal amino acids of the protein and is associated with dominant distal renal tubular acidosis. The properties of band 3 Walton expressed with normal band 3 in the heterozygous mutant erythrocytes and the kidney isoform expressed in xenopus oocytes and in the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line were examined. The mutant erythrocytes have normal hematology but have reduced band 3 Walton content. Transport studies showed that erythrocyte band 3 Walton has normal sulfate transport activity, and kidney band 3 Walton has normal chloride transport activity when expressed in xenopus oocytes. The mutant protein is clearly able to reach the cell surface of erythrocytes and oocytes. In contrast, while normal kidney band 3 was expressed at the cell surface in the kidney cell line, the Walton mutant protein was retained intracellularly within the kidney cells. The results demonstrate that band 3 Walton is targeted differently in erythrocytes and kidney cells and indicate that the COOH-terminal tail of band 3 is required to allow movement to the cell surface in kidney cells. It is proposed here that the mutant band 3 gives rise to dominant distal renal tubular acidosis by inhibiting the movement of normal band 3 to the cell surface. It is suggested that this results from the association of the normal and mutant proteins in band 3 hetero-oligomers, which causes the intracellular retention of normal band 3 with the mutant protein.
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6/19. ATP6B1 gene mutations associated with distal renal tubular acidosis and deafness in a child.

    A large proportion of autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is associated with mutations in the ATP6B1 gene encoding the B1 subunit of H -ATPase. H -ATPase is one of the key membrane transporters for net acid excretion in the alpha-intercalated cells of the medullary collecting duct. Sensorineural hearing loss frequently accompanies this type of distal RTA. Mutational analysis of the ATP6B1 gene in a 9-year-old Korean boy with distal RTA and sensorineural hearing loss found 2 heterozygous missense point mutations. Although a single case report, this is the second report documenting ATP6B1 mutations in recessive distal RTA with sensorineural hearing loss after the original report by Karet et al and confirms the novelty of these mutations.
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7/19. Reduced Tc-99m DMSA uptake in a patient with renal tubular acidosis: effect of acid-base imbalance.

    Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used as a renal cortical imaging agent to detect parenchymal abnormalities especially in children. kidney uptake of DMSA provides an index for evaluation of a functional tubular mass, which depends on the renal blood flow and proximal tubular cell membrane transport function. We here report a boy with renal tubular acidosis, which has noticeably reduced uptake on his Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy, despite a totally normal Tc-99m MAG-3 study. The case reported here clearly demonstrates a situation in which renal uptake of DMSA may be dissociated from a functional renal mass and the importance of acid-base balance which alters Tc-99m DMSA uptake.
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8/19. Early skeletal effect of alkali therapy upon the osteomalacia of renal tubular acidosis.

    The administration of alkaline agents to a 16-year-old girl with severe renal tubular acidosis and osteomalacia caused an almost immediate rise of the urinary excretion of total hydroxyproline. The increment of the dyalizable fraction predominated over the nondyalizable component. Gradually serum phosphate and serum alkaline phosphatase increased whereas urinary calcium and magnesium and phosphate clearance declined. serum PTH remained elevated throughout. We suggest that the correction of the metabolic acidosis might increase the transport of phosphate and calcium across the functional bone membrane leading to a rapid deposition of lime salts in the uncalcified matrix with a concomitant increase in bone collagen turnover.
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9/19. Mutational and functional analysis of SLC4A4 in a patient with proximal renal tubular acidosis.

    Permanent isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) with ocular abnormalities is a systemic disease with isolated pRTA, short stature and ocular abnormalities. We identified a novel homozygous deletion of nucleotide 2,311 adenine in the kidney type Na /HCO3- cotransporter (kNBC1) cDNA in a patient with permanent isolated pRTA. This mutation is predicted to result in a frame shift at codon 721 forming a stop codon after 29 amino acids anomalously transcribed from the SLC4A4 gene. Cosegregation of this mutation with the disease was supported by heterozygosity in the parents of the affected patient. The absence of this mutation in 156 alleles of 78 normal individuals indicates that this mutation is related to the disease and is not a common dna sequence polymorphism. When injected into xenopus oocytes, the mutant cRNA failed to induce electrogenic transport activity. In addition, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis failed to detect the expression of the full-length protein in mutant-injected oocytes. Our results expand the spectrum of kNBC1 mutations in permanent isolated pRTA with ocular abnormalities and increase our understanding of the renal tubular mechanism that is essential for acid-base homeostasis.
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10/19. A novel missense mutation in the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1/SLC4A4) causes proximal tubular acidosis and glaucoma through ion transport defects.

    In humans and terrestrial vertebrates, the kidney controls systemic pH in part by absorbing filtered bicarbonate in the proximal tubule via an electrogenic Na /HCO3- cotransporter (NBCe1/SLC4A4). Recently, human genetics revealed that NBCe1 is the major renal contributor to this process. Homozygous point mutations in NBCe1 cause proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA), glaucoma, and cataracts (Igarashi, T., Inatomi, J., Sekine, T., Cha, S. H., Kanai, Y., Kunimi, M., Tsukamoto, K., Satoh, H., Shimadzu, M., Tozawa, F., Mori, T., Shiobara, M., Seki, G., and Endou, H. (1999) Nat. Genet. 23, 264-266). We have identified and functionally characterized a novel, homozygous, missense mutation (S427L) in NBCe1, also resulting in pRTA and similar eye defects without mental retardation. To understand the pathophysiology of the syndrome, we expressed wild-type (WT) NBCe1 and S427L-NBCe1 in xenopus oocytes. Function was evaluated by measuring intracellular pH (HCO3- transport) and membrane currents using microelectrodes. HCO3- -elicited currents for S427L were approximately 10% of WT NBCe1, and CO2-induced acidification was approximately 4-fold faster. Na -dependent HCO3- transport (currents and acidification) was also approximately 10% of WT. Current-voltage (I-V) analysis reveals that S427L has no reversal potential in HCO3-, indicating that under physiological ion gradient conditions, NaHCO3 could not move out of cells as is needed for renal HCO3- absorption and ocular pressure homeostasis. I-V analysis without Na further shows that the S427L-mediated NaHCO3 efflux mode is depressed or absent. These experiments reveal that voltage- and Na -dependent transport by S427L-hkNBCe1 is unfavorably altered, thereby causing both insufficient HCO3- absorption by the kidney (proximal RTA) and inappropriate anterior chamber fluid transport (glaucoma).
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