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1/236. Unusual presentation and course of hiv-1 progressive encephalopathy.

    The present report concerns a vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-infected 7-year-old child, in whom a neurodegenerative disease occurred after an acute neurologic disorder that was in all likelihood symptomatic of hiv-1 encephalitis. At the steady state the neurologic disease fulfilled the accepted criteria of HIV-related progressive encephalopathy of childhood and was characterized by involvement of multiple neural systems and subcortical dementia. The neurologic disease displayed, however, atypical presentation and course, and its acute focal onset led the authors to postulate an acute and direct involvement of the brain in hiv-1 infection. The correlation between the cliniconeuroradiologic data and levels of HIV-rna in the cerebrospinal fluid and the response to different antiretroviral treatments are also discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/236. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifesting Gerstmann's syndrome.

    We reported a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) via multiple blood transfusions, who manifested progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) about 18 months after the development of AIDS. PML initiated with right hemiparesis, dysphasia, and Gerstmann's syndrome and resulted in death within 2 months after the onset. neuroimaging examinations revealed white matter lesions mainly in the left posterior parietal lobe. The cortical gray matter also showed abnormal signal intensity. Peripheral CD4 lymphocyte count was 81/microl. Routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were negative. CSF antibodies against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus as well as serum antibody against toxoplasma gondii were negative. Though autopsy or biopsy of the brain was not performed, jc virus genomes were detected in the CSF sample by a polymerase chain reaction, and their sequencing showed unique alterations of the regulatory regions, characteristic to PML-type jc virus.
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ranking = 0.31890764006315
keywords = zoster, herpes, varicella
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3/236. Oral hairy leukoplakia: an ultrastructural study and review of the literature.

    A 39-year-old, homosexual, Caucasian man with a 9-month history of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by reduced cd4 lymphocyte count alone was found to have extensive, asymptomatic, nonremovable, corrugated, white patches on the lateral borders and ventral aspects of the tongue typical of oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL). Histologically, irregular hyperparakeratosis, acanthosis, and clusters of ballooned keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum were present in the biopsied lateral tongue. Some of the superficial ballooned keratinocytes had peripherally beaded nuclei, whereas others had ground glass intranuclear inclusions. Ultrastructurally, the ballooned keratinocytes had three important findings of diagnostic significance. First, frequent herpesvirus nucleocapsids were largely confined to superficial ballooned keratinocytes having marginated and condensed chromatin. In searching for herpesvirus nucleocapsids, the marginated and condensed chromatin was an invaluable marker for cells harboring the virions. Second, the marginated and condensed chromatin frequently had a distinctive punched-out or cribriform appearance. Third, the ground glass intranuclear inclusion bodies consisted of central, medium electron-dense, finely granular material containing frequent herpesvirus nucleocapsids and partially surrounded or capped by prominent, clumped chromatin. The patient died with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 24 months after OHL was diagnosed.
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ranking = 0.48897064668449
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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4/236. Herpetic whitlow in an AIDS patient.

    This case confirms that cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in many AIDS patients is important not only for the difficulty in diagnosis of herpetic lesions, but also for the possibility that co-infection by HSV and HIV can adversely affect prognosis in these patients.
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ranking = 0.070917589949091
keywords = herpes
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5/236. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia overlying Kaposi's sarcoma lesions: role of viral synergy?

    Several viral agents have been detected in the lesional tissue of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Their precise oncogenic role remains to be determined. A 32-year-old heterosexual man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who had penile lesions of KS with overlying epithelial changes characteristic of intraepithelial neoplasia associated with concurrent infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is reported. The absence of viral dna from uninvolved skin suggests that this coinfection is more than coincidental and may involve synergy between these viruses, as has already been suggested for HPV and herpes simplex 2 virus.
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ranking = 0.49322331446779
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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6/236. chorea in patients with AIDS.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe differing etiologies and possible anatomoclinical correlates of choreic movements in a series of AIDS patients. methods: We analyzed the clinical records and neuroimaging data of 5 consecutive AIDS patients who developed choreic movements at our center from January, 1994 to December, 1996. RESULTS: There were 2 cases of focal choreic dyskinesias, 1 of right hemichorea, and 2 of generalized chorea. Onset was acute and febrile in 1 case, and subacute in the other 4. In 1 patient the chorea was the AIDS onset symptom; in another choreic movements were the first neurological symptom following AIDS diagnosis; in 2 patients AIDS had a neurological onset other than chorea; and in the fifth patient buccofacial dyskinesias appeared following the development of bacterial encephalitis. CONCLUSION: chorea was associated with cerebral toxoplasmosis in 2 patients, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in 1, subacute HIV encephalopathy in another, and was probably iatrogenic in the last. chorea is not unusual in AIDS, however the causes are variable and careful neuroradiological and clinical evaluation is required to identify them. AIDS-related disease should be considered in young patients presenting with chorea without a family history of movement disorders.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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7/236. Isolation of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic t-lymphocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV type 1-infected subjects.

    cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be an important opportunistic infection in hiv-1-infected patients, particularly when the CD4 T-cell count drops below 50 lymphocytes/mm3. CMV-associated disease, including retinitis, pneumonitis, gastroenteritis, and encephalitis, is estimated to affect up to 40% of AIDS patients. We have studied the cellular immune response to CMV in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of hiv-1-infected patients. Two patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology were examined by flexible sigmoidoscopy and upper endoscopy. biopsy specimens were obtained from lymphoid-associated tissue sites in rectum and duodenum. Both patients were seropositive for CMV IgG, but had not been treated with ganciclovir, and neither had clinical signs of CMV disease. Mononuclear cell cultures were established from GALT and blood and assayed for the presence of CMV-specific CD8 T cells. CD8 T-cell phenotype and function were assessed by MHC Class I tetramer staining, using an HLA-A*0201 tetramer complex specific for peptide 495-503 (NLVPMVATV) of CMV lower matrix protein pp65, and by a standard 51Cr release assay. CMV pp65-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) were detected in GALT and blood MNC from both patients. These results demonstrate that hiv-1-infected subjects seropositive for CMV, but without active CMV gastrointestinal disease, harbor CMV-specific CTL in intestinal lymphoid tissue. This is the first report of isolation of CMV-specific CTL in GALT and will lead to greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CMV disease in human mucosal tissue.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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8/236. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis in a patient with AIDS: isolation of acanthamoeba sp. Group II from brain tissue and successful treatment with sulfadiazine and fluconazole.

    A patient with AIDS, treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, presented with confusion, a hemifield defect, and a mass lesion in the right occipital lobe. A brain biopsy confirmed granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) due to acanthamoeba castellanii. The patient was treated with fluconazole and sulfadiazine, and the lesion was surgically excised. This is the first case of AIDS-associated GAE responding favorably to therapy. The existence of a solitary brain lesion, absence of other sites of infection, and intense cellular response in spite of a very low CD4 count conditioned the favorable outcome. We review and discuss the diagnostic microbiologic options for the laboratory diagnosis of infections due to free-living amebae.
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ranking = 5
keywords = encephalitis
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9/236. Occult thyroid pathology in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Case report and review of the drug-related pathology in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    A 11-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AaS), Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection and long-term antiviral treatment suffered from a disorder of contractility of the left ventricle of the heart. Following severe unmanageable vomiting, the patient died and the postmortem examination showed marked involution of the lymphatic system, multiple foci of fibrosis of both ventricles of the heart, and regressive changes of the thyroid gland. Biochemical values of the thyroid gland function were, however, not altered. Neither human immunodeficiency virus-related p24 antigen, nor VZV dna sequences were found in the thyroid gland. Regressive changes of the thyroid gland can probably occur before its function fails. By analyzing the possible etiologies, the endocrine toxicity of a long-term antiviral treatment should be taken into account.
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ranking = 0.19423750484576
keywords = zoster
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10/236. Clinicopathological characterization of an hiv-2-infected individual with two clonally unrelated primary lymphomas.

    Human immunodeficiency virus 2 (hiv-2) is endemic in West africa and is a causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Only a small number of hiv-2-infected patients have been described in detail. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common neoplasm occurring in hiv-1-infected patients, but its incidence seems to be lower in hiv-2-infected individuals. We report an hiv-2-infected patient from cape verde (West africa) with separate and distinct systemic and primary central nervous system large B-cell lymphomas and review the findings of cases of hiv-2-associated lymphomas reported in the literature. Different clonal rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene could be detected in the two lymphomas of our patient by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. These data indicate the presence of two clonally unrelated large B-cell lymphomas in the same patient, which is an unusual finding. Neither Epstein-Barr virus nor human herpesvirus 8 could be detected in the tumor tissues or the cerebrospinal fluid. hiv-2 infection should be considered in patients with NHL, especially in those from West africa.
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ranking = 0.4223057245187
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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