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11/236. Novel association of haemophagocytic syndrome with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-related primary effusion lymphoma.

    Haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fulminant, often fatal, systemic illness that occurs in association with infection and malignancy. We provide the first report of HPS that heralded a primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a rare neoplasm linked to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. The patient was a 38-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with fever, sweats, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and refractory anaemia. Examination of the spleen demonstrated haemophagocytosis; analysis of ascites revealed PEL. Treatment with chemotherapy and ganciclovir resulted in complete remission of both conditions. This case illustrates the diagnostic challenges posed by HPS and supports the trial of antiviral agents in combination with chemotherapy in patients with PEL.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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12/236. Unusual presentation of measles giant cell pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    The typical clinical presentation of measles in a normal immunocompetent host includes cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, Koplik's spots, and rash. However, in an immunocompromised host, measles may have an atypical clinical presentation and may be commonly associated with severe pneumonia or encephalitis. We report a fatal case of measles pneumonia without any clinical features that suggest measles in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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ranking = 1.2270675224952
keywords = encephalitis
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13/236. Isolated oropharyngeal Kaposi's sarcoma in non AIDS patient: differences and similarities with spindle-cell haemangioendothelioma.

    Vascular tumours rarely affect the oropharynx and overall they can represent a diagnostic challenge since their clinico-histopathological patterns are not always clear. This case report, of an isolated pharyngeal vascular proliferation, allowed the authors to analyse the similarities and differences between Kaposi's sarcoma and spindle-cell haemangioendothelioma. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of diagnostic tools, such as the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) marker, that sometimes may represent the only reliable test for clearly establishing the diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.51819763912069
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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14/236. Acute panuveitis with haemorrhagic hypopyon as a presenting feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Anterior uveitis is a known clinical entity in herpes zoster ophthalmicus associated with AIDS. However, reports of acute haemorrhagic hypopyon uveitis in such cases are lacking. Herein we describe a young male patient presenting with acute panuveitis with haemorrhagic hypopyon, who was found hiv positive on investigation.
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ranking = 0.65357913821308
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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15/236. AIDS-related body cavity-based lymphoma. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Body cavity-based lymphomas are rare malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients, but because of their unusual clinical, morphologic and immunophenotypic features, they are recognized as a distinct subgroup of lymphomas connected to human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection. CASE: A 39-year-old, hiv-positive, homosexual man was admitted to the hospital because of a left-sided pleural effusion that contained malignant lymphoid cells. He responded partially to a low-dose cyclophosphamide/doxorubycin/vincristine/prednisone regimen and died five months after the diagnosis of lymphoma. On cytology, the sediments contained exclusively large, round, neoplastic, lymphoid cells with abundant basophilic cytoplasm and large, round nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Many cells had immunoblastic features, and some had plasmocytoid differentiation. Mitotic figures were numerous. On flow cytometry, the homogeneous population of large cells expressed CD45, CD38, HLA-DR and CD7 positivity. Other specific T-, B- and NK-cell markers tested negative. polymerase chain reaction demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and HHV-8 in the malignant effusion. CONCLUSION: Primary effusion from lymphoma with molecular evidence of HHV-8 and EBV coinfection represents a distinct clinical and morphologic entity in AIDS patients. However, immunophenotypic markers of malignant clones can be diverse in different cases.
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ranking = 0.51819763912069
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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16/236. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and acute retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To describe an unusual concurrence of acute retinal necrosis and progressive outer retinal necrosis in fellow eyes of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). methods: Interventional case report. In a 37-year-old man with AIDS and herpes zoster keratitis in the right eye, progressive outer retinal necrosis developed in the right eye and acute retinal necrosis developed in the left eye. RESULTS: Disparate presentations of retinitis persisted in each eye, and retinal detachment and vision loss ensued in both eyes despite antiviral therapy. CONCLUSION: Distinct features of acute retinal necrosis and progressive outer retinal necrosis do not necessarily reflect systemic factors, and they may be variant manifestations of the same underlying infection.
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ranking = 0.65357913821308
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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17/236. Toxoplasmic encephalitis and primary lymphoma of the brain--the shift in epidemiology: a case series and review of the literature.

    With the advent of HAART, there has been a decline in the incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses. Despite this decline, we increasingly see patients who present with AIDS-defining illnesses similar to those seen during the early days of the hiv epidemic because patients are having difficulty in tolerating or adhering to their HAART regimens. In general, patients today are different: some are receiving prophylaxis to prevent hiv-related infections and many have experienced a more prolonged duration of immunosuppression resulting from intermittent use of HAART. We present 4 patients with neurologic symptoms and focal brain lesions and review and compare the diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis with that of primary CNS lymphoma.
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ranking = 6.1353376124759
keywords = encephalitis
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18/236. Long-term remission of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-related multicentric Castleman disease with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy.

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-related multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is potentially lethal. Growing evidence indicates that, as in Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphoproliferative disorders after transplantation, KSHV dna burden in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may represent the most accurate marker of disease activity. This report describes a patient with human immunodeficiency virus who was followed up clinically and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for KSHV dna sequences in PBMCs for more than 3 years following the diagnosis of KSHV-related MCD. Therapy with the antiherpesvirus agent cidofovir, antihuman interleukin-6 antibody BE-8, antiblastic chemotherapy, and combination antiretroviral agents did not achieve durable clinical or virologic remission of the disease. By contrast, administration of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab was well tolerated and allowed a 14-month remission of clinical symptoms and KSHV viremia. Rituximab should be added to the therapeutic armamentarium for KSHV-related MCD.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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19/236. Chagasic meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: diagnosis, follow-up, and genetic characterization of trypanosoma cruzi.

    early diagnosis of the clinical reactivation of Chagas' disease in human immunodeficiency virus- and trypanosoma cruzi-coinfected persons is fundamental for a good prognosis. polymerase chain reaction rapidly and efficiently demonstrated the presence and elimination of T. cruzi in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with chagasic meningoencephalitis. Characterization of T. cruzi, directly and indirectly in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstrated homogeneity of kinetoplast dna and the presence of lineage 1 (T. cruzi II) in both parasite populations.
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ranking = 6.7111874174612
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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20/236. Atypical presentation of herpes simplex (chronic hypertrophic herpes) in a patient with hiv infection.

    A 46-year-old man with hiv infection and AIDS presented with a large perianal ulcerated vegetative lesion that developed over a 1-year period. He had a past history of recurrent genital herpes infection, treated successfully each time with acyclovir. The perianal lesion developed while he was taking prophylactic acyclovir. Clinically, there were features suspicious of a carcinoma and a biopsy was reported as showing dysplasia. Therefore, the lesion was resected in its entirety. Histologically, there were prominent pseudo-epitheliomatous hyperplasia and chronic ulceration associated with herpesvirus infection. There was no evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. It is important to be aware of chronic vegetant herpesvirus infection, as clinical appearances are unusual and some methods of identification, such as smears or biopsy, may not be sufficient for diagnosis. Viral culture or PCR may need to be performed for a definite diagnosis to alleviate prolonged discomfort and avoid unnecessary radical surgery.
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ranking = 1.1831860426014
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
(Clic here for more details about this article)
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