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21/236. Progressive myoclonic ataxia and jc virus encephalitis in an AIDS patient.

    A case of progressive myoclonic ataxia in an AIDS patient is described, which evolved over a 13 month period. The ataxia persisted as the only clinical finding for several months before the appearance of a severe tetraparesis and cachexia. Throughout the clinical progression, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of bilateral, progressive, isolated, and symmetrical lesions involving the red nuclei, subthalami, thalami, lenticular nuclei, and primary motor cortices. Neuropathological examination, supplemented by in situ hybridisation for jc virus dna, confirmed that the lesions were those of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML). The exceptional clinical presentation of PML in this case is the first report of progressive myoclonic ataxia caused by PML. The selective nature of the lesions confirms the role of the dentato-rubral-thalamo-cortical tract in the pathogenesis of progressive myoclonic ataxia. The atypical MRI findings further emphasise the need for expanded diagnostic criteria for PML in AIDS patients and support the use of more aggressive diagnostic methods as new treatments become available.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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22/236. Bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusion in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and central nervous system lymphoma.

    PURPOSE: Clinical course and autopsy findings in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus-1 immunodeficiency, central nervous system lymphoma, and bilateral, simultaneous ophthalmic artery occlusions. DESIGN: Observational case report. methods: Clinical examination, fundus photography, gross and microscopic pathologic study. RESULTS: Fundus photographs disclosed stasis in retinal arterioles, the absence of a cherry-red spot; internal carotid arteriography disclosed bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusions; postmortem histopathologic examination disclosed bilateral ophthalmic artery atherosclerosis, retinal ischemic necrosis, ischemic optic neuropathy, diffuse large-cell lymphoma of multiple areas of the central nervous system, cytomegalovirus encephalitis, atherosclerosis, and bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: A 47-year-old male with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, profound immunodeficiency, systemic hypertension, and central nervous system lymphoma, developed deep vein thrombosis, bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusions, and died of pneumonia 7 weeks after the onset of blindness. Postmortem study revealed bilateral ophthalmic artery hemorrhagic atherosclerosis, ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic retinal necrosis, diffuse large-cell central nervous system lymphoma, cytomegalovirus encephalitis, pneumonitis, and systemic atherosclerosis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = encephalitis
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23/236. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus-associated subcutaneous angioleiomyomas in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Tumours of smooth muscle origin, either solitary or multiple, are occasionally found in immunocompromised patients, particularly in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Most of the reported AIDS-associated leiomyomatous neoplasms have been found in the visceral organs, and the tumour cells all possessed the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Here we present a 32-year-old-man with AIDS who developed three skin nodules on his lower left extremity. No other tumorous lesions were found using computed tomography scans. Two of the three nodules were resected for pathological examination. Histologically, both tumours were well circumscribed and located in the subcutis. The tumours were composed of interlacing fascicles of spindle-shaped cells with prominent vasculature and lymphocytic infiltration. No pleomorphism, mitosis or necrosis was seen. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were reactive to smooth muscle actin and desmin. Angioleiomyoma was diagnosed. EBV-encoded small RNAs were also demonstrated in the nucleus of the tumour cells by in situ hybridization but no EBV receptor (CD21) or latent membrane protein (LMP)-1 was found in the tumour cells. No human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 genome was detected in the lesion using polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results of this study indicated that EBV containing subcutaneous angioleiomyoma was another neoplasm that must be considered in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection who develop skin nodules. The role of EBV in the pathogenesis of this unique neoplasm is still unknown.
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ranking = 0.10557643112968
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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24/236. Successful treatment of varicella zoster virus retinitis with aggressive intravitreal and systemic antiviral therapy.

    AIMS: To describe the successful treatment of varicella zoster virus retinitis (VZVR) using intravenous cidofovir as part of an aggressive management strategy. case reports: Two patients with bilateral VZVR were treated with a combination of intravenous cidofovir and ganciclovir with adjuvant intravitreal foscarnet or ganciclovir. Both patients maintained good vision in the less severely affected eye. retinal detachment did not occur in either patient. CONCLUSIONS: VZVR should be treated aggressively with a combination of intravenous and intravitreal therapy to improve visual prognosis. Intravenous cidofovir, in the absence of contra-indications, should be considered as part of this aggressive therapeutic approach, especially in patients with AIDS in whom the prognosis is particularly poor.
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ranking = 0.55203034102792
keywords = zoster, varicella zoster, varicella
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25/236. AIDS presenting with cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and bacillary angiomatosis in the bone marrow mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and bacillary angiomatosis (BA) may be histologically similar. A precise diagnosis is required because of the different management of these diseases. KS or BA involving bone marrow is rare in patients with and without acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the case of a 40-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive homosexual male who presented with small KS lesions in the skin and BA in the bone marrow that histologically were similar. Laboratory evaluation revealed anemia and thrombocytopenia; CD4 count was 103/mm3, and the viral load was 750,000 hiv-1 mRNA copies per milliliter in plasma. bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent of BA, was isolated from a blood culture. dna sequences of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), the putative etiologic agent of KS, were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin and bone marrow specimens, but antibody anti-HHV-8-encoded protein ORF73, localized signals only in the skin-KS lesion. The patient received clarithromycin and cefotetan for the BA, and antiretroviral therapy for the HIV infection. The skin lesions gradually regressed, the hiv-1 mRNA copy number decreased to less than 400 per milliliter and the cd4 lymphocyte count increased to 665/mm3. In conclusion, vascular lesions of BA and KS may be clinically and histologically similar, both may be associated with advanced AIDS, and an accurate diagnosis is required because of their different management.
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ranking = 0.10557643112968
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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26/236. Reactivation of Chagas' disease leading to the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Reactivation of chronic Chagas' disease is a rare condition and occurs only in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of a patient with a rapid and fatal reactivation of Chagas' disease, manifested by meningoencephalitis, which lead to a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We believe there is sufficient evidence to include the reactivation of Chagas' disease among the diagnostic criteria of AIDS in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection.
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ranking = 0.2734644709614
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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27/236. Tuberculous brain abscess in a patient with AIDS: case report and literature review.

    Tuberculous brain abscesses in AIDS patients are considered rare with only eight cases reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 34-year-old woman with AIDS and previous toxoplasmic encephalitis who was admitted due to headache and seizures. A brain computed tomography scan disclosed a frontal hypodense lesion with a contrast ring enhancement. brain abscess was suspected and she underwent a lesion puncture through a trepanation. The material extracted was purulent and the acid-fast smear was markedly positive. Timely medical and surgical approaches allowed a good outcome. Tuberculous abscesses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of focal brain lesions in AIDS patients. Surgical excision or stereotactic aspiration, and antituberculous treatment are the mainstay in the management of these uncommon lesions.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = encephalitis
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28/236. Varicella infection in a pediatric AIDS patient presenting as umbilicated papules.

    An 8-year-old girl with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presented with fever and alteration of consciousness. She had a history of persistent cryptococcal meningitis. She developed multiple discrete umbilicated papules that resembled cutaneous cryptococcosis on the second day of admission. skin biopsy revealed an ulcer with a wedge-shaped necrosis of the dermis. The edge of the ulcer showed intracellular edema, margination of nucleoplasm and multinucleated cells, consistent with herpes infection. The diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infection was confirmed by the identification of herpesvirus dna from the lesion and differentiation from other herpesviruses by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Intravenous acyclovir was given at a dose of 500 mg/m2, three times daily for 14 days which resulted in resolution of the skin lesions within 2 weeks.
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ranking = 0.16122201779654
keywords = zoster, herpesvirus, herpes, varicella
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29/236. Combined and alternating ganciclovir and foscarnet in acute and maintenance therapy of human immunodeficiency virus-related cytomegalovirus encephalitis refractory to ganciclovir alone. A case report and review of the literature.

    cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes life-threatening disseminated infections and in particular vision-threatening infections of the retina in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ganciclovir currently represents the most frequently used therapy for CMV retinitis. However, cases of ganciclovir-resistant CMV strains have been described, in which foscarnet seems to be an effective alternative. Both drugs have serious toxicities, and relapses frequently occur during maintenance therapy. In a patient with CMV encephalitis, we administered a 3-week combination ganciclovir/foscarnet induction therapy (ganciclovir 5 mg/kg every 12 h; foscarnet 60 mg/kg every 8 h), followed by an alternating maintenance administration of both drugs every other day (ganciclovir 5 mg/kg, foscarnet 120 mg/kg) to reduce toxicity and resistance. This regimen was tolerated well and seemed to be more effective than ganciclovir alone in a patient with CMV encephalitis.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = encephalitis
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30/236. Clinical effects and in vitro studies of trifluorothymidine combined with interferon-alpha for treatment of drug-resistant and -sensitive herpes simplex virus infections.

    Three AIDS patients with severe cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection refractory to therapy with acyclovir and foscarnet (2 patients) were treated with a topical preparation of trifluorothymidine (TFT) and interferon-alpha. Complete healing of lesions occurred in 1 patient; a second had significant regression of the infected area. In the third, the lesion was stabilized twice after application of the preparation and reduced in size after a subsequent treatment. in vitro studies confirmed that isolates from these patients were acyclovir- or acyclovir/foscarnet-resistant. In addition, they revealed strong synergy between TFT and interferon-alpha for these isolates and for strains with wild-type drug sensitivity profiles. Topical TFT/interferon-alpha may be of benefit in the therapy of mucocutaneous HSV infections, especially when they are resistant to treatment with systemic antiviral agents.
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ranking = 0.088646987436364
keywords = herpes
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