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1/60. typhoid fever and HIV infection: a rare disease association in industrialized countries.

    typhoid fever is still a global health problem, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world and in developing countries, where relatively elevated morbidity and mortality rates still are present, mostly because of persisting poor hygienic conditions. In the majority of Mediterranean regions, including italy, the disease is constantly present, though with a low prevalence rate, as a result of an endemic persistence of salmonella typhi infection.1-4 On the other hand, in industrialized countries, most cases of S. typhi infection are related to foreign travel or prior residence in endemic countries.4-6 In the united states, 2445 cases of typhoid fever have been reported in the decade 1985 to 1994, and the annual number of cases remained relatively stable over time: over 70% of episodes were acquired in endemic countries (mostly mexico and india).6 The persisting morbidity of S. typhi also may be supported by the increasing resistance rate of this pathogen against a number of commonly used antimicrobial compounds. For instance, 6% of 331 evaluable S. typhi strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole, and 22% of isolates were resistant to at least one of these three agents in a recent survey performed in the united states.6 The spread of antibiotic resistance among S. typhi isolates is emerging in many countries, and multidrug-resistant strains have been isolated, as well as isolates with poor susceptibility to fluoroquinolones,3-5,7-9 so that in vitro susceptibility should be determined for all cultured strains, and antimicrobial treatment should be adjusted accordingly. Nevertheless, fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin) or third-generation cephalosporins, still represent the best choice for empirical treatment,2,4,6-8,10 and mortality remains rare in Western countries (less than 1% of episodes), although it is expected to be greater in developing areas of the world. The aim of this report is to describe two cases of typhoid fever that occurred in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a rarely reported disease association in industrialized countries.
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2/60. coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and Mycobacterium in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report a case of coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in the same lesions in the small bowel and bone marrow of a 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who complained of abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. The duodenal mucosa and bone marrow biopsy specimens showed numerous foamy macrophages packed with two forms of microorganisms that were identified histologically and ultrastructurally as Leishmania and Mycobacterium species. Visceral leishmaniasis is rarely suspected in patients residing in nonendemic countries including the united states. It should be included in the differential diagnosis for opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An appropriate travel history is important. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case showing coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and mycobacterium avium-intracelluulare in the same lesion in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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3/60. Visceral leishmaniasis masquerading as tuberculosis in a patient with AIDS.

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis presenting as significant lymphadenopathy in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The lymphadenopathy was initially suspected to be tubercular in nature on pathological examination. This report highlights the increasing incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and Leishmania co-infection in india, and the importance of demonstrating tubercle bacilli on culture before suggesting a diagnosis of tuberculosis.
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keywords = leishmaniasis
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4/60. kwashiorkor in patients with AIDS.

    kwashiorkor, a form of severe protein-energy malnutrition that entails loss of lean body weight, occurs endemically among children in many parts of the world but also has been documented in adults. We report a case of kwashiorkor in an HIV-positive adult male. Cutaneous findings are striking, and skin, hair, and nails are affected. Although kwashiorkor occurs in patients with HIV-AIDS, the skin manifestations have not been emphasized in the dermatologic literature. Indeed, dermatologists may play a vital role in diagnosing this treatable condition.
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5/60. pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis in an adult HIV negative patient.

    This is a case report of a 29 year old male with pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis, and who was initially suspected of having HIV infection, based on risk factor analyses, but was subsequently shown to be HIV negative. The patient arrived at the hospital with fever, cough, weight loss, loss of appetite, pallor, and arthralgia. In addition, he was jaundiced and had cervical lymphadenopathy and mild heptosplenomegaly. He had interstitial infiltrates of the lung, sputum smears positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis and pneumocystis carinii, and stool tests were positive for strongyloides stercoralis and schistosoma mansoni. He was diagnosed as having AIDS, and was treated for tuberculosis, pneumocystosis, and strongyloidiasis with a good response. The patient did not receive anti-retroviral therapy, pending outcome of the HIV tests. A month later, he was re-examined and found to have worsening hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, fever, and continued weight loss. At this time, it was determined that his HIV ELISA antibody tests were negative. A bone marrow aspirate was done and revealed amastigotes of leishmania, and a bone marrow culture was positive for Leishmania species. He was treated with pentavalent antimony, 20 mg daily for 20 days, with complete remission of symptoms and weight gain. This case demonstrates that immunosuppression from leishmaniasis and tuberculosis may lead to pneumocystosis, and be misdiagnosed as HIV infection. The occurrence of opportunistic infections in severely ill patients without HIV must always be considered and alternate causes of immunosuppression sought.
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keywords = leishmaniasis
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6/60. First report of cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype B from greece.

    A plethora of cases of cryptococcus neoformans infections have been recorded worldwide in immunocompromised individuals. The number of such cases showed a steady rise before 1981 and increased dramatically thereafter due to the AIDS epidemic. A similar pattern has been seen in greece but, so far, infections appear to have been caused by C. neoformans var. neoformans. This paper describes for the first time two culture-proven C. n. var. gattii serotype B infections in greece, one in an AIDS patient and one in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.
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7/60. Intestinal cryptosporidiosis as an initial manifestation in a previously healthy Japanese patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: cryptosporidium parvum infection has been recognized as one of the pathogens causing severe and persistent diarrhea in immunodeficient patients, such as those with AIDS, worldwide. However, in japan, the frequency of this infection has been rare, except for environmental contamination through the water supply. In this communication, we describe a Japanese patient with AIDS presenting with intestinal cryptosporidiosis as an initial manifestation. methods: The oocysts of cryptosporidium parvum in his stool were detected by the Ziehl-Neelsen method and electron microscopy. The antigen-specificity was proved by immunostaining, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled monoclonal antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using Cryptosporidium-specific antibody. RESULTS: A 28-year-old Japanese homosexual man was admitted to our hospital because of severe watery diarrhea of 1-week duration. Numerous oocysts of cryptosporidium parvum were observed in his stool. cryptosporidium parvum antigen was detected in stool samples. Serological examinations revealed that anti-hiv-1 antibody was positive, and HIV rna was positive at a high level. He was diagnosed as having AIDS associated with intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The circulating CD4 T-cell count was 152/microl. His diarrhea was not alleviated by administration of loperamide and an ordinary antibiotic agent, but ultimately resolved by the administration of the macrolide antibiotic agent, clarithromycin. CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize that the presence of cryptosporidium parvum infection should be kept in mind in searching for pathogens causative of severe diarrhea in AIDS patients.
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8/60. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS.

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is rarely reported in south america. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area) presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.
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ranking = 34624.228899185
keywords = leishmaniasis
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9/60. Overcoming the false dichotomy of curative vs palliative care for late-stage HIV/AIDS: "let me live the way I want to live, until I can't".

    Recent advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy have significantly reduced HIV-related mortality in the developed world, but mortality rates have plateaued, and AIDS remains a leading cause of serious illness and death for young adults. The chronic nature of the HIV disease course and the increasing burden of cumulative HIV-related morbidity and treatment-related toxic effects pose new challenges to the care of patients over time. Uncertainties about prognosis and the promise and limitations of rapidly evolving therapies have made decision making about advance care planning and end-of-life issues more complex and elusive than when the disease course was more uniform, rapid, and predictable. The emerging biomedical paradigm of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as the cornerstone of treatment has helped to transform HIV into a manageable chronic disease, yet at the same time has resulted in a more narrow focus and a de facto separation between disease-specific "curative" and symptom-specific "palliative" care for patients with HIV/AIDS. As patients survive longer in the latter stages of progressive HIV disease, they may in fact have increasing need for comprehensive symptom management as well as wide-ranging need for psychosocial, family, and care planning support. In the HAART era, the false dichotomy of curative vs palliative care for patients with HIV/AIDS must be supplanted by a more integrated model to provide comprehensive care for patients with advanced HIV disease and their families.
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10/60. Disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in a patient with AIDS: a case report.

    The authors report a case of culture-proven disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in an HIV positive patient. Lesions began in the oropharynx and nasal mucosa eventually spreading to much of the skin surface. The response to a short course of glucantime therapy was good.
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keywords = leishmaniasis
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