Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

11/60. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS.

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is rarely reported in south america. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in hiv-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area) presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = leishmaniasis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

12/60. Cellular and humoral immune responses of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis and AIDS.

    The lymphocyte responsiveness to leishmanial antigens and its influence on the course of cutaneous leishmaniasis was studied in a patient with AIDS-associated American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis. The patient had cutaneous disseminated erythematous papules or nodules and mucosal lesions as well as moniliasis and weight loss. The patient had a poor delayed-type hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigens, showing 3 mm of induration. The cellular immune responses were studied in vitro by lymphocyte proliferative assays induced by leishmanial antigens and concanavalin a. The T cell phenotypes were analysed by flow cytometry. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells before proliferation showed an inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio (0.28:1). The lymphoproliferative responses to antigen and mitogen were very low (indices < 2.5). The blast-like cell phenotypes after antigen stimulation in culture were: CD3 44.8%, CD4 7.53% and CD8 17.45%. In AIDS patients the decrease in the pool of CD4 cells, and consequent diminution of the CD4/CD8 ratio, produced by hiv infection provokes a generalized immune depression. The patient's disseminated clinical picture was probably related to the inability of his T cell-mediated immune responses to control the spread of Leishmania infection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.75
keywords = leishmaniasis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

13/60. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis after visceral disease in a patient with AIDS.

    leishmaniasis is emerging as a common and serious opportunistic disease for patients with hiv infection. Almost all cases of hiv-Leishmania coinfection have been described in Mediterranean countries and they occur with various clinical presentations, ranging from typical visceral forms to asymptomatic or atypical cases, including cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been the mainstays of antileishmanial therapy for half a century and new lipid formulations of amphotericin b seem reliable, but the most effective treatment remains unknown. We describe a patient who was hiv infected and an intravenous drug user, with an unusual disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, after an initial visceral disease and after a 13-month maintenance treatment with liposomal amphotericin. The severe concurrent immunosuppression probably played an essential role in leading to this atypical cutaneous form, characterized by diffuse, nonulcerated, nonscabby maculopapular lesions.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.75
keywords = leishmaniasis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

14/60. Visceral leishmaniasis and hiv co-infection: a rare case of pulmonary and oral localization.

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has increased as a complicating infection in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in countries bordering the Mediterranean sea. The clinical course as well as organ involvement of VL are often atypical in hiv positive subjects. In this study a case of VL with pulmonary and oral mucose localisation in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), is reported. These findings, together with the presence of the parasite in the peripheral blood smear, confirm that in hiv positive patients the impaired immune system allows the spreading and the atypical localisation of the Leishmania amastigotes more easily than in immuno-competent individuals. In endemic areas and in hiv positive subjects a systemic and careful parasitological follow-up is necessary to ensure that any clinical form of leishmaniasis is not overlooked.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.75
keywords = leishmaniasis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

15/60. Sexually transmitted disease, ethnomedicine and health policy in africa.

    Compared with both industrialized countries and other less developed parts of the world, most of sub-Saharan africa suffers inordinately from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It has high prevalence rates of traditional STDs, such as gonorrhea and syphilis, and if accurate seroprevalence surveys were to be done, it would probably prove to have the highest hiv seropositive incidence in the world. Unlike the pattern in the West, AIDS is primarily a heterosexually transmitted disease in africa. This appears to be largely because of the prevalence of other untreated or improperly treated STDs. Therefore to lower the incidence of STDs would be to curtail the spread of hiv infection. The problem becomes how exactly to accomplish this. Most STD cases are never even presented at biomedical health facilities; they are presented to traditional healers. Both healers and their patients seem to believe that traditional STD cures are more effective than 'modern' cures, although the former are probably biomedically ineffective. While there is scant ethnomedical literature on STDs in africa, the present paper presents swaziland findings and related evidence from other African societies that the ultimate cause of several common STDs is believed to be the violation of norms governing sexual behavior, requiring traditional rather than biomedical treatment. Traditional healers therefore need to be a central part of any scheme to lower the incidence of STDs.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2.8881509618935E-5
keywords = world
(Clic here for more details about this article)

16/60. Successful treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lipid formulations of amphotericin b in two immunocompromised patients.

    Pentavalent antimonial drugs are habitually the first choice for treating leishmaniasis, although they possess well-known toxicity and may present some therapeutic failure. Lipid formulations of amphotericin b (LFAB) have been increasingly used for treating several types of leishmaniasis. However, the administration of such lipid formulations specifically to patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still rare, including immunocompromised patients to whom standard treatments are more frequently contraindicated. We describe here two cases of immunocompromised patients with CL, one of them with AIDS, representing the first case of AIDS and CL co-infection treated with LFAB described in the literature. The patient achieved therapeutic success with a total 1.500 mg dose of amphotericin b colloidal dispersion. The other had diabetes mellitus as well as kidney failure and was under dialysis, having obtained the healing of lesion with a total dose of 600 mg of liposomal amphotericin b. Thus, the authors suggest that LFAB can represent a safe, efficient and less toxic therapeutic alternative to pentavalent antimonials, as well as to the so-called second line drugs, pentamidine and amphotericin b deoxycholate.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.875
keywords = leishmaniasis
(Clic here for more details about this article)

17/60. Concurrent cerebral american trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS.

    We report a case of concurrent cerebral infection with trypanosoma cruzi and toxoplasma gondii in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A 22-year-old El Salvadoran man initially improved during receipt of antitoxoplasmosis therapy, but he had rapidly progressive hemiplegia. magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal finding in the left internal capsule, and cytological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Despite prompt therapy with nifurtimox, the patient's mental status declined, and he died of nosocomial complications. Although infrequent, T. cruzi infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain lesions in patients with AIDS from regions of endemicity.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5.1706916682919E-5
keywords = american
(Clic here for more details about this article)

18/60. Acute Chagas' disease (trypanosomiasis americana) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of two cases.

    Two heterosexual men, aged 31 and 40 years, with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and presenting with the acute form of Chagas' disease are reported. The first patient, a carrier of hemophilia a, was treated for 20 years with Chilean and Brazilian cryoprecipitates. This patient acquired both diseases through this medium. The second patient, an inhabitant of northern chile (fourth region), was allegedly bitten by triatoma infestans and was an intravenous drug addict. The hemophilic patient presented with a neurologic syndrome; a brain biopsy showed a necrotizing encephalitis with an obliterative angiitis and abundant macrophages. The second patient developed intractable congestive heart failure; necropsy showed a dilated myocarditis with rupture of myofibers and an inflammatory infiltrate rich in plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Using light and electron microscopy, abundant amastigotes of trypanosoma cruzi were seen in brain tissue, especially in the cytoplasm of macrophages, as well as in some myocardial fibers. In both cases, determination of anti-T cruzi antibodies (indirect hemagglutination technique) and xenodiagnosis were positive.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5.1706916682919E-5
keywords = american
(Clic here for more details about this article)

19/60. Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma in a child with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma in a 9-year-old girl. The pathologic diagnosis was made on a partial hepatectomy specimen and was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. No human immunodeficiency virus-related nucleic acid was identified in tumor cells by in situ hybridization. review of the AIDS-related literature reveals a rising incidence of tumors of smooth muscle origin in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. This case study details the eighth pediatric AIDS patient with a tumor of smooth muscle origin and represents the 20th and the youngest patient with primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma to be reported in the world literature.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.4440754809467E-5
keywords = world
(Clic here for more details about this article)

20/60. Nexus of infection with human immunodeficiency virus, pulmonary tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis: a case report from Bihar, india.

    A 37-year-old man was diagnosed as being infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), tuberculosis (TB), tuberculoma of the brain, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) at the Rajendra Memorial Institute of Medical Sciences in Bihar, india. He had taken anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) for two and a half months and had episodes of convulsions with loss of consciousness, tongue bites, and incontinence of urine. The results of a neurologic examination were normal except for a left plantar extensor. He was positive for both hiv-I (confirmed by Western blot) and VL (confirmed by splenic aspirate). Treatment was initiated with amphotericin b lipid complex, a four-drug regimen (rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide) of ATT, highly active antiretroviral therapy, anti-convulsants, and other supportive therapies. A repeat computed tomography scan of the brain showed the disappearance of the lesion followed by gliosis. After six months, he was also cured of VL. The triad of infections (hiv, VL, and TB) is a real threat in Bihar as an emerging combination of diseases of public health importance. Keeping these facts in mind, efforts to develop simple and cost effective diagnostic techniques coupled with affordable therapeutic facilities are urgently needed in developing countries.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.625
keywords = leishmaniasis
(Clic here for more details about this article)
<- Previous || Next ->


Leave a message about 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.