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1/188. The use of monoclonal antibody R92F6 and polymerase chain reaction to confirm the presence of parvovirus B19 in bone marrow specimens of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: parvovirus B19 infection is a cause of chronic anemia and red cell aplasia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in other immunocompromised hosts. anemia in AIDS patients has a multifactorial etiology, with parvovirus B19 infection being an infrequent but nevertheless treatable cause. Therapy with intravenous immune globulin can result in rapid improvement of parvovirus-induced anemia. This treatment is expensive, therefore accurate and rapid confirmation of parvovirus infection is important in providing appropriate and cost-effective therapy. methods: Bone marrow samples from 2 AIDS patients with severe anemia and reticulocytopenia were studied. Bone marrow morphology and serologic studies were evaluated for parvovirus B19 infection. An immunohistochemical method using a monoclonal antibody, R92F6, to B19 capsid proteins was utilized on decalcified, B5-fixed, paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies. Bone marrow aspirate cells were examined by electron microscopy for evidence of viral particles. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies using a nested PCR assay to the parvovirus B19 viral genome were performed in a case for which fresh cells were available. RESULTS: Bone marrow findings included marked erythroid hypoplasia with characteristic giant pronormoblasts and intranuclear inclusions. Serologic studies were negative in one case, while the second case showed positive parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin m antibody. Immunohistochemical studies for parvovirus B19 were positive in both cases. The presence of intranuclear virions was demonstrated by electron microscopy and was confirmed by PCR analysis. Both patients were treated with intravenous immune globulin, and subsequent improvement was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Both immunohistochemistry and PCR studies on bone marrow specimens from AIDS patients with anemia are rapid and sensitive methods for the confirmation of parvovirus B19 infection. They are valuable tools, particularly when serologic studies are negative. When PCR is not available, immunohistochemical methods can be useful. The rapid confirmation of parvovirus B19 infection will allow for early and cost-effective therapy.
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2/188. coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and Mycobacterium in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report a case of coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in the same lesions in the small bowel and bone marrow of a 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who complained of abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. The duodenal mucosa and bone marrow biopsy specimens showed numerous foamy macrophages packed with two forms of microorganisms that were identified histologically and ultrastructurally as Leishmania and Mycobacterium species. Visceral leishmaniasis is rarely suspected in patients residing in nonendemic countries including the united states. It should be included in the differential diagnosis for opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An appropriate travel history is important. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case showing coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and mycobacterium avium-intracelluulare in the same lesion in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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ranking = 93.855361090282
keywords = macrophage, bone
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3/188. Haemorrhagic cystitis associated with adenovirus in a patient with AIDS treated for a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Adenovirus-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been reported chiefly in bone marrow or kidney transplant recipients. We report here on an HIV-positive patient treated for a Burkitt's lymphoma who developed gross haematuria associated with fever and burning urination. Usual causes of haematuria were ruled out: lithiasis, urinary tract lesions, glomerulonephritis, mycobacterium and schistosoma infections, and drug toxicity. Adenovirus was detected by cellular cultures and BK/jc virus dna sequences were detected using a polymerase chain reaction method. Because BK/JC virus shedding is very common (75%) in HIV patients receiving chemotherapy, our data strongly suggest that adenovirus was responsible for the haemorrhagic cystitis in our patient. In conclusion, adenovirus should be considered as a potential cause of haemorrhagic cystitis in AIDS patients whose immunosuppression is aggravated by cytotoxic drugs.
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4/188. Disseminated mycoplasma fermentans in AIDS patients: several case reports.

    We describe the clinical course of 2 HIV-positive patients in whom mycoplasma fermentans was disseminated and persistent. We identified individuals in whom M. fermentans had been detected in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen. Of this group a number had archival specimens of interest: liver and/or bone marrow, taken to investigate a systemic illness, and a few had M. fermentans positive tissues. Two patients, NC and DP, had recurrent episodes of lower respiratory tract infection and fever and both had been investigated by bronchoscopy on 4 occasions. M. fermentans was detected in specimens taken 18 and 27 months apart for NC and DP respectively, and in between, and repeatedly in respiratory tract tissues of DP. granuloma were identified in the liver of NC that was M. fermentans positive but no further evidence of opportunistic infection was found during his illness. Both patients had M. fermentans positive bone marrow specimens. Assessment of the patients' records suggested that in one patient M. fermentans may have contributed to the respiratory disease and in the other to the systemic disease.
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5/188. PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of a bone marrow isolate from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient discloses polyclonal infection with two mycobacterium avium strains.

    Polyclonal infection by mycobacterium avium was detected by hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) in a bone marrow isolate from an AIDS patient. Two M. avium strains, differing in colony morphology, PRA HaeIII digestion pattern, insertion element (IS) 1245 amplification, and restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprints with IS1245 and IS1311 probes, were isolated.
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6/188. pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis in an adult HIV negative patient.

    This is a case report of a 29 year old male with pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis, and who was initially suspected of having HIV infection, based on risk factor analyses, but was subsequently shown to be HIV negative. The patient arrived at the hospital with fever, cough, weight loss, loss of appetite, pallor, and arthralgia. In addition, he was jaundiced and had cervical lymphadenopathy and mild heptosplenomegaly. He had interstitial infiltrates of the lung, sputum smears positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis and pneumocystis carinii, and stool tests were positive for strongyloides stercoralis and schistosoma mansoni. He was diagnosed as having AIDS, and was treated for tuberculosis, pneumocystosis, and strongyloidiasis with a good response. The patient did not receive anti-retroviral therapy, pending outcome of the HIV tests. A month later, he was re-examined and found to have worsening hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, fever, and continued weight loss. At this time, it was determined that his HIV ELISA antibody tests were negative. A bone marrow aspirate was done and revealed amastigotes of leishmania, and a bone marrow culture was positive for Leishmania species. He was treated with pentavalent antimony, 20 mg daily for 20 days, with complete remission of symptoms and weight gain. This case demonstrates that immunosuppression from leishmaniasis and tuberculosis may lead to pneumocystosis, and be misdiagnosed as HIV infection. The occurrence of opportunistic infections in severely ill patients without HIV must always be considered and alternate causes of immunosuppression sought.
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7/188. Hypercalcaemia and elevated 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels associated with disseminated mycobacterium avium infection in AIDS.

    Hypercalcaemia may complicate granulomatous diseases, such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis, and various aids-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. We report here two patients with AIDS and disseminated mycobacterium avium infection who developed symptomatic hypercalcaemia several weeks after commencing antimycobacterial chemotherapy, and in whom inappropriately elevated 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)levels were documented. Although vitamin d supplementation may have contributed, no other cause for the hypercalcaemia was found. The biochemical and clinical similarities between these cases and other hypercalcaemic granulomatous diseases suggest a common mechanism related to macrophage activation and dysregulated vitamin d production.
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ranking = 93.522027756949
keywords = macrophage
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8/188. multiple myeloma as the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    Various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors are increasingly diagnosed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may be the presenting manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). multiple myeloma, however, has never been reported as the presenting manifestation of AIDS. We report on a 34-year-old man who presented with back pain, paresthesias, paraparesis, vertebral bony disease, and an associated soft tissue mass. biopsy of the mass revealed immature plasmacytes with very faint cytoplasmic expression of kappa light chains. Bone marrow biopsy revealed 25% infiltration with poorly characterized malignant cells and 15% polyclonal plasma cells. Immunofixation of serum and urine was positive for IgG kappa and kappa light chains, respectively. A bone survey revealed lesions in the skull, left femur bone, and the pelvis. The diagnosis of an anaplastic myeloma was made. Because of the poorly characterized nature of the malignant cells and the difficulties in immunophenotyping, serologic evaluation for HIV was undertaken and was positive. The concept of myeloma as an opportunistic neoplasm defining AIDS was considered. We discuss this view and recommend that patients with multiple myeloma with poorly characterized myeloma cells as well as difficulties in immunophenotyping should undergo testing for HIV infection.
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9/188. AIDS presenting with cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and bacillary angiomatosis in the bone marrow mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and bacillary angiomatosis (BA) may be histologically similar. A precise diagnosis is required because of the different management of these diseases. KS or BA involving bone marrow is rare in patients with and without acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the case of a 40-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive homosexual male who presented with small KS lesions in the skin and BA in the bone marrow that histologically were similar. Laboratory evaluation revealed anemia and thrombocytopenia; CD4 count was 103/mm3, and the viral load was 750,000 hiv-1 mRNA copies per milliliter in plasma. bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent of BA, was isolated from a blood culture. dna sequences of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), the putative etiologic agent of KS, were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin and bone marrow specimens, but antibody anti-HHV-8-encoded protein ORF73, localized signals only in the skin-KS lesion. The patient received clarithromycin and cefotetan for the BA, and antiretroviral therapy for the HIV infection. The skin lesions gradually regressed, the hiv-1 mRNA copy number decreased to less than 400 per milliliter and the cd4 lymphocyte count increased to 665/mm3. In conclusion, vascular lesions of BA and KS may be clinically and histologically similar, both may be associated with advanced AIDS, and an accurate diagnosis is required because of their different management.
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10/188. Disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient diagnosed on bone marrow.

    A 29 year old male drug addict, who was HIV positive presented with fever and hepatosplenomegaly. bone marrow examination revealed histoplasma capsulatum confirmed by PAS & GMS stains. However patient had a rapid downhill course with multiorgan failure and died before specific treatment could be instituted.
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