Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

11/188. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment in AIDS patients.

    Frequent complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection are hematopoietic failure and poor tolerance of myelosuppressive drugs. Reasons for neutropenia resulting from hematopoietic failure are infection of the bone marrow and hematotoxicity of treatment with zidovudine, ganciclovir, sulfonamides, and interferons. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-gamma have been shown to suppress proliferation of bone marrow cells. Both granulocyte (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increase neutrophil counts and ameliorate phagocytic and bactericidic function of neutrophils. We report eight cases of AIDS patients with serious infections and neutropenia (< 750 cells/microliters), who were treated concomitantly with recombinant human G-CSF (3-4 micrograms subcutaneously per kilogram body weight daily). G-CSF treatment was well tolerated in all patients and showed no side effects or disturbances of other lineages than neutrophils. life-threatening bacterial infections were treated successfully by stimulating the neutrophil immune system. This therapy shortened the duration of subsequent treatment with antibiotics. Since human immunodeficiency virus infects CD4-positive monocytes and macrophages, which are stimulated by GM-CSF, G-CSF seems to be the cytokine of choice, if stimulation of the neutrophil lineage is warranted.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = macrophage, bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

12/188. Clinical presentation of parvovirus B19 infection in hiv-infected patients with and without AIDS.

    Human parvovirus B19 replicates in erythrocyte precursors. Usually, there are no apparent hematological manifestations. However, in individuals with high erythrocyte turnover, as in patients with sickle-cell disease and in the fetus, the infection may lead to severe transient aplasia and hydrops fetalis, respectively. In AIDS patients, persistent infection may result in chronic anemia. By contrast, in hiv-positive patients without AIDS the infection evolves as a mild exanthematous disease. Two clinical descriptions exemplify these forms of presentation. In the first, an AIDS patient presented with bone marrow failure that responded to immunoglobulin. In the second, an hiv-positive patient without AIDS had a morbilliform rash, and needed no treatment. Knowing that an AIDS patient has chronic B19 anemia lessens concern about drug anemia; protects the patient from invasive diagnostic maneuvers; and prevents the patient from disseminating the infection. In AIDS patients with pure red cell aplasia, a search for parvovirus B19 DNA in the serum or in the bone marrow is warranted.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.0017789410738619
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

13/188. Immunocytochemical characterization of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infected giant cells in perinatal acquired human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection.

    In a pediatric case of necrotizing CMV myelitis after perinatal hiv infection characteristic cytomegalic cells, which could not be attached to a particular cell line by cell morphology, were studied after immunostaining with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against GFAP, S100 protein, NSE, synaptophysin, factor viii, vimentin, macrophages, leukocytes, CMV, HSV I II, toxoplasma, and hiv 1 gp41. astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, ependymal and endothelial cells, macrophages, and schwann cells stained positively with CMV antiserum. With regard to their immunological features the majority of cytomegalic cells ("owl eye cells") was identified as astrocytes, and in decreasing frequency, the remainder was characterized as macrophages, mesenchymal, and endothelial cells. It is concluded that CMV giant cells represent one phase of virus induced cell transformation, not only one single, but numerous cell types are exposed to after CMV infection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.4973315883892
keywords = macrophage
(Clic here for more details about this article)

14/188. Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of four cases.

    Four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a 27-year-old female intravenous drug abuser and three males (two drug addicts aged 27 and 33 years and a 40-year-old homosexual) presented with a rapidly progressive encephalopathy. Two had generalized varicella-zoster virus skin infection, one had had a regressive thoracic zoster rash 7 months previously and one had no history of cutaneous eruption. Neuropathological examination revealed, in each case, multifocal necrotic changes with numerous, intranuclear Cowdry type A inclusion bodies in glial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and neurons, within and around the lesions. These inclusion bodies were stained positively for varicella-zoster virus by immunocytochemistry and contained herpes virus nucleocapsids by electron microscopy. molecular biology using the polymerase-chain-reaction method demonstrated viral genome. In one case, zoster-induced non-inflammatory vasculopathy involved medium sized leptomeningeal vessels and was associated with circumscribed areas of cortico-subcortical infarction. In another case, varicella-zoster virus encephalitis was associated with human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and a secondary cerebral lymphoma. Multinucleated giant cells expressing human immunodeficiency virus proteins in their cytoplasm, were found in the lymphomatous deposits and in the varicella-zoster virus necrotic lesions. In these latter lesions, Cowdry type A inclusion bodies could be seen in the nuclei of some multinucleated giant cells confirming previous observations of MGCs co-infected by hiv and CMV, and supporting the hypothesis that dna viruses interact with hiv, thus increasing its effect.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.49911052946307
keywords = macrophage
(Clic here for more details about this article)

15/188. CD8 lymphocytosis and pseudotumoral splenomegaly in hiv infection.

    Three patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) presented with pseudotumoral splenomegaly, CD8 lymphocytosis (3.5-5.1 x 10(9)/l), and hypergammaglobulinaemia. spleen and bone marrow showed diffuse CD8 lymphocyte and plasma-cell infiltration. Amplification of the T-cell-receptor gamma chain gene did not reveal any clonal T-cell population. Phenotypic analysis showed a predominance of CD8/CD57 suppressor T cells with expression of activation markers (DR and CD38). No cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hiv could be detected. The three patients shared the HLA haplotype A1, B8, DR3. The association with this haplotype suggests a genetically determined host immune response to hiv.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.00088947053693095
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

16/188. Failure of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation to benefit hiv infection.

    A 16 year old boy underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling for severe aplastic anaemia. He was symptomatic for 7 years before transplantation and had received multiple red blood cell and platelet transfusions. Conditioning for BMT consisted of cyclophosphamide, antilymphocyte globulin and total lymphoid irradiation. Engraftment was rapid, there was no evidence of rejection despite the history of multiple blood product transfusions and he did not develop acute or chronic graft versus host disease. He was well for the first 8 months after transplantation but then developed fevers, interstitial pneumonia, herpes simplex infections and cytomegalovirus enteritis. Serological studies revealed antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and he was considered to have acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Retrospective analysis of the serum samples showed that he was seronegative for hiv until approximately 10 months before transplantation when his serum became hiv positive. Lymphocyte function studies done after transplantation suggested immunologic recovery at 3 months post-transplant with a brisk though subnormal response to phytohaemagglutinin stimulation. T cell subset analysis performed subsequently showed complete absence of CD4 positive cells indicating immune incompetence which was associated with clinical features of AIDS. bone marrow transplantation had failed to produce sustained immunologic reconstitution and prevent the progression of hiv to which he ultimately succumbed.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.0044473526846548
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

17/188. AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the sphenoid sinus.

    The head and neck region is frequently involved by AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, the oral cavity being the most common site of occurrence. We report on the first case of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma involving the sphenoid sinus where radionuclide bone scanning and MRI were effective in suggesting the diagnosis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.00088947053693095
keywords = bone
(Clic here for more details about this article)

18/188. Acute Chagas' disease (trypanosomiasis americana) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of two cases.

    Two heterosexual men, aged 31 and 40 years, with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and presenting with the acute form of Chagas' disease are reported. The first patient, a carrier of hemophilia a, was treated for 20 years with Chilean and Brazilian cryoprecipitates. This patient acquired both diseases through this medium. The second patient, an inhabitant of northern chile (fourth region), was allegedly bitten by triatoma infestans and was an intravenous drug addict. The hemophilic patient presented with a neurologic syndrome; a brain biopsy showed a necrotizing encephalitis with an obliterative angiitis and abundant macrophages. The second patient developed intractable congestive heart failure; necropsy showed a dilated myocarditis with rupture of myofibers and an inflammatory infiltrate rich in plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Using light and electron microscopy, abundant amastigotes of trypanosoma cruzi were seen in brain tissue, especially in the cytoplasm of macrophages, as well as in some myocardial fibers. In both cases, determination of anti-T cruzi antibodies (indirect hemagglutination technique) and xenodiagnosis were positive.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.4973315883892
keywords = macrophage
(Clic here for more details about this article)

19/188. rhodococcus equi infection in patients with AIDS.

    rhodococcus equi is an emerging opportunistic pathogen of hiv-I infected patients. It is an aerobic, Gram-positive coryneform bacterium which acts as a facultative intracellular micro-organism, multiplying in the phagosome of macrophages. Eighteen cases of R. equi infection in hiv-I positive patients have now been reported. Sixteen of these had pneumonia, of which 12 had cavitating lung lesions. A history of contact with farm animals, which are the primary hosts of R. equi, was found in only three patients. There was a delay in establishing a definite diagnosis in most cases as this depended upon the isolation of R. equi from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or blood. Treatment included surgical resection in five patients and erythromycin with a second antibiotic in 13 cases, but II of the 18 patients died from the infection. In this report we describe our experience of R. equi pneumonia in two AIDS patients and review the published cases of the disease in man.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.49911052946307
keywords = macrophage
(Clic here for more details about this article)

20/188. Fulminant inflammatory leukoencephalopathy associated with HAART-induced immune restoration in AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    HAART-induced immune restoration is beneficial for patients with AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). However, in rare instances, an immune-reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (iris) may cause paradoxical clinical deterioration. We report the neuropathological study of an AIDS patient who presented with progressive cognitive deterioration; CD4( ) count was 117 and the hiv viral load >10(4); imaging showed non-enhancing lesions consistent with PML. Following initiation of HAART, CD4( ) was 300 and hiv viral load <10(3), but his neurological symptoms continued to deteriorate. Imaging revealed an increase in the size and number of lesions and enhancement of all the lesions. A stereotactic biopsy showed severe inflammatory and demyelinating lesions with marked infiltration by macrophages and T lymphocytes in the absence of a detectable infectious agent. Despite high doses of steroids, the patient died 3 months after admission. autopsy showed two types of lesions: (1) active inflammatory PML changes with abundant jc virus, and intraparenchymal and perivascular infiltration by T lymphocytes, and (2) acute perivenous leukoencephalitis devoid of jc virus. Most lymphocytes were CD8( ) lymphocytes; CD4( ) lymphocytes were virtually absent. Two pathological reactions were associated with the paradoxical clinical deterioration related to dysregulation of the immune response characteristic of iris in PML: (1) an accentuation of JCV infection, and (2) a nonspecific acute perivenous leukoencephalitis. We suggest that both these types of lesions are due to an imbalance of CD8( )/CD4( ) T cells, with massive infiltration of the cerebral parenchyma by CD8( ) cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the absence of sufficient CD4( ) response. Better understanding of the mechanisms of the iris may enable prevention or cure of this severe, sometimes fatal complication of HAART.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.49911052946307
keywords = macrophage
(Clic here for more details about this article)
<- Previous || Next ->


Leave a message about 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.