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1/40. arthritis due to mycobacterium fortuitum.

    mycobacterium fortuitum is classified as a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) according to the Runyon classification. RGM are increasingly being recognized as human pathogens. Joint infection due to M. fortuitum is a rare, but serious disease. This report describes a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and septic arthritis of the knee due to M. fortuitum in a previously normal joint with no history of surgery or intra-articular injections.
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keywords = mycobacterium
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2/40. Transcontinental spread of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium bovis.

    Globally, the proportion of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) caused by drug-resistant strains is increasing. We report the case of a Canadian citizen who acquired a highly drug-resistant strain of mycobacterium bovis while visiting a relative with AIDS-related tuberculosis in spain. The origin of the strain was traced using spoligotyping, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fingerprint technology, and the European dna database. The level of primary drug resistance-all five first-line drugs and 19 of 21 second-line drugs-in this case was unprecedented in canada. Isolation of this strain from a Canadian citizen represents the first report of its appearance in this hemisphere. The infection was contained and combined medical-surgical treatment delivered.
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ranking = 0.0071567405399699
keywords = bovis
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3/40. Haemorrhagic cystitis associated with adenovirus in a patient with AIDS treated for a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Adenovirus-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been reported chiefly in bone marrow or kidney transplant recipients. We report here on an hiv-positive patient treated for a Burkitt's lymphoma who developed gross haematuria associated with fever and burning urination. Usual causes of haematuria were ruled out: lithiasis, urinary tract lesions, glomerulonephritis, mycobacterium and schistosoma infections, and drug toxicity. Adenovirus was detected by cellular cultures and BK/jc virus dna sequences were detected using a polymerase chain reaction method. Because BK/JC virus shedding is very common (75%) in hiv patients receiving chemotherapy, our data strongly suggest that adenovirus was responsible for the haemorrhagic cystitis in our patient. In conclusion, adenovirus should be considered as a potential cause of haemorrhagic cystitis in AIDS patients whose immunosuppression is aggravated by cytotoxic drugs.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = mycobacterium
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4/40. Clinical and pathologic features of mycobacterium fortuitum infections. An emerging pathogen in patients with AIDS.

    The clinical and pathologic features of mycobacterium fortuitum infection in 11 patients with AIDS were characterized. Nine patients had cervical lymphadenitis; 2 had disseminated infection. The infection occurred late in the course of AIDS, and the only laboratory abnormality seen in more than half of patients (7/11) was relative monocytosis. Absolute monocytosis also was seen in 4 of 11 patients. In both cytologic and histologic preparations, the inflammatory pattern was suppurative with necrosis or a mixed suppurative-granulomatous reaction. M fortuitum, a thin, branching bacillus, stained inconsistently in direct smear and histologic preparations. Staining was variable with Gram, auramine, Brown-Hopps, Gram-Weigert, Kinyoun, Ziehl-Neelsen, modified Kinyoun, and Fite stains. Organisms, when present, were always seen in areas of suppurative inflammation. Incorrect presumptive diagnosis, based on misinterpretation of clinical signs and symptoms or on erroneous identification of M fortuitum bacilli as nocardia species, led to a delay in proper therapy for 7 of 11 patients. Definitive therapy after culture identification resulted in complete resolution of infection in all patients except 1.
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ranking = 0.012662633126082
keywords = bacillus
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5/40. Reiter's syndrome associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report.

    The association of Reiter's Syndrome (RS) with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is seldom mentioned in the medical literature. This report illustrates this relationship in a 46 years old male patient suffering from AIDS (CD(4)( ) = 240 cells/mm(3), CD(8)( ) = 1,301 cells/mm(3) and viral load = 330,000 copies/ml), pulmonary tuberculosis (positive catarrhal bacilluscopy), and RS. The diagnosis of RS was based on the combination of dermatological and articular alterations. The patient s cutaneous lesions were characterized by exfoliation and the formation of crusts located on the face, scalp, genitals, hands, and feet; onychodystrophy with opacity; yellowish coloring; and hyperkeratosis of the nails. Articular lesions led to progressive deformity of phalangeal joints of the hands, and intensive arthralgia, mainly of the larger joints (shoulders, elbows, hips and knees). AIDS treatment was administered with anti-retroviral drugs (zidovudine and didanosine); for tuberculosis (isoniazid, rifampicine, and pyrazinamide); and (prednisone and inometacine) for the RS. The patient recovered with the improvement of articular symptoms; however, on the eighth day of treatment, the patient showed significant hemoptysis and hypovolemic shock, and died. The association of RS and hiv infection is reviewed.
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ranking = 0.012662633126082
keywords = bacillus
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6/40. osteomyelitis and skin ulcers caused by Mycobacterium szulgai in an AIDS patient.

    Mycobacterium szulgai is a ubiquitious non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing infection in immunocompetent and immunocompromized patients. Clinically mimicking pulmonary tuberculosis in most cases described, rarely other manifestations occur. Here we report the case of an AIDS patient with osteomyelitis of the hand and toe, accompanied by multiple cutaneous ulcers of the chest and forearm. The case highlights the unusual combination of osteomyelitis and skin ulcers without pulmonary infection and describes the likely cutaneous route of infection in a patient who keeps tropical fish.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = mycobacterium
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7/40. Infection with mycobacterium bovis in a patient with AIDS: a late complication of BCG vaccination.

    We present a 28-year-old hiv-infected man with a 2-year delayed complication of BCG immunization. When immunized the man was healthy, with an unknown hiv status, but 2 years later he was diagnosed with AIDS because of a pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. He was successfully treated and discharged in a state of good health. A few months later he presented with an enlarged lymph node and mycobacterium bovis, BCG strain, was cultured. No sign of dissemination was found. We discuss the indications for BCG vaccination in adults, especially in areas and in populations with a high prevalence of hiv.
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ranking = 0.0071567405399699
keywords = bovis
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8/40. Pulmonary Mycobacterium sherrisii infection in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patient.

    We report the first case of a pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium sherrisii in a patient with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Mycobacterium sherrisii is a newly described nontuberculous mycobacterium related to Mycobacterium simiae. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for species identification. Treatment and antibiotic susceptibilities are described.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = mycobacterium
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9/40. Human immunodeficiency virus and infected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: report of three cases.

    Three patients who were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus underwent surgery for infected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. fever and abdominal pain were the principal presenting clinical features. None of the patients had any opportunistic infections or endocarditis. In two cases, a ruptured aneurysm was demonstrated radiographically. In the remaining case, sonograms were diagnostic. The organisms responsible were salmonella, Hemophilus influenzae, and mycobacterium tuberculosis. In two cases, the infectious origin was evidenced by bacteriologic examination of the aortic wall, which revealed the presence of salmonella enteritidis and Koch's bacillus. Although Hemophilus influenzae was not found in the aortic wall of the remaining case, the infectious origin of the aneurysm was established because preoperative blood cultures were positive for this pathogen, and pathohistologic examination of the specimen showed destruction associated with leukocyte infiltration of the aneurysmal wall. An in situ prosthetic graft replacement protected by omentum was performed in all three cases. Antibiotic therapy was continued for several weeks. All patients are well with follow-up ranging from 10 to 21 months. Infectious aneurysm associated with human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity results in bacterial infestation of an atheromatous aorta. Infected phenomena are promoted by cellular immunodeficiency. Surgery was justified in these cases because of the immediate threat of rupture.
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ranking = 0.012662633126082
keywords = bacillus
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10/40. lactobacillus acidophilus bacteraemia after use of a probiotic in a patient with AIDS and Hodgkin's disease.

    We report the case of a patient who developed bacteraemia and septic pulmonary emboli with lactobacillus acidophilus after taking a probiotic containing this organism.
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ranking = 0.063313165630411
keywords = bacillus
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