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1/147. Case of the month: March 1999--A 26 year old HIV positive male with dura based masses.

    A 26-year-old male with AIDS presented with a chief complaint of headaches and neck pain. An MRI revealed two enhancing extra-axial dura based masses, one in the area of the left sphenoid wing and one at the level of C2-3. In both cases, microscopic sections showed actin positive spindle cell neoplasms with long slender nuclei, consistent with leiomyomas. Both tumors were positive for Epstein Barr virus by in situ hybridization. This case report serves to emphasize the importance of considering soft tissue tumors such as leiomyoma in the differential diagnosis of mass lesions that occur in the central nervous system in AIDS and discusses the role of EBV in tumorigenesis.
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2/147. glioblastoma multiforme in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: investigation a possible oncogenic influence of human immunodeficiency virus on glial cells. Case report and review of the literature.

    Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain neoplasm, but generally it is not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a 29-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Primary CNS lymphoma was suspected, making a definitive histological diagnosis crucial. An initial stereotactic biopsy sample was insufficient to establish a diagnosis and a second biopsy of the lesion was obtained. The histopathological investigation confirmed GBM and adjuvant external radiation treatment was given to the patient, who survived for 4 months after the initial biopsy. A decline in the rate of toxoplasma infection and the changing diseases observed in HIV infection indicate the importance of obtaining a biopsy in cases of CNS mass lesions.
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3/147. central nervous system leiomyosarcoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Report of two cases.

    Leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) of the central nervous system are extremely rare; however, they are becoming more prevalent in immunocompromised patients. The authors present the cases of two patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: one with LMS of the thoracic vertebral body and the other with LMS originating from the region of the cavernous sinus. The epidemiological and histological characteristics of LMS and its association with latent Epstein-Barr virus are discussed, as well as the treatments for this neoplasm.
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keywords = nervous system
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4/147. Clinicopathological characterization of an hiv-2-infected individual with two clonally unrelated primary lymphomas.

    Human immunodeficiency virus 2 (hiv-2) is endemic in West africa and is a causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Only a small number of hiv-2-infected patients have been described in detail. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common neoplasm occurring in hiv-1-infected patients, but its incidence seems to be lower in hiv-2-infected individuals. We report an hiv-2-infected patient from cape verde (West africa) with separate and distinct systemic and primary central nervous system large B-cell lymphomas and review the findings of cases of hiv-2-associated lymphomas reported in the literature. Different clonal rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene could be detected in the two lymphomas of our patient by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. These data indicate the presence of two clonally unrelated large B-cell lymphomas in the same patient, which is an unusual finding. Neither Epstein-Barr virus nor human herpesvirus 8 could be detected in the tumor tissues or the cerebrospinal fluid. hiv-2 infection should be considered in patients with NHL, especially in those from West africa.
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5/147. Bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusion in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and central nervous system lymphoma.

    PURPOSE: Clinical course and autopsy findings in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus-1 immunodeficiency, central nervous system lymphoma, and bilateral, simultaneous ophthalmic artery occlusions. DESIGN: Observational case report. methods: Clinical examination, fundus photography, gross and microscopic pathologic study. RESULTS: Fundus photographs disclosed stasis in retinal arterioles, the absence of a cherry-red spot; internal carotid arteriography disclosed bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusions; postmortem histopathologic examination disclosed bilateral ophthalmic artery atherosclerosis, retinal ischemic necrosis, ischemic optic neuropathy, diffuse large-cell lymphoma of multiple areas of the central nervous system, cytomegalovirus encephalitis, atherosclerosis, and bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: A 47-year-old male with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, profound immunodeficiency, systemic hypertension, and central nervous system lymphoma, developed deep vein thrombosis, bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusions, and died of pneumonia 7 weeks after the onset of blindness. Postmortem study revealed bilateral ophthalmic artery hemorrhagic atherosclerosis, ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic retinal necrosis, diffuse large-cell central nervous system lymphoma, cytomegalovirus encephalitis, pneumonitis, and systemic atherosclerosis.
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keywords = nervous system
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6/147. erythropoietin overdose treated with emergent erythropheresis.

    erythropoietin (EPO) is commonly used to treat anemias secondary to renal failure, malignancy, and AIDS. Although therapeutic complications are well described, overdose is rare. A 42-y-o man with AIDS confused his instructions for self-administration of interferon and EPO and began injecting himself daily with 10,000 units of EPO for several weeks. He presented with confusion, pain in his abdomen and feet, and a hemoglobin of 23.2 g/dLwith a hematocrit of 77.1%. The patient was treated with iv fluids, phlebotomy and 2 sessions of erythropheresis which removed 898 mL and 640 mL of red blood cells, respectively; his hemoglobin remained between 12-14 g/dL and symptoms resolved. His only sequelae involved skin loss over his toes, which did not require grafting. This rare case of EPO overdose highlights the complications of essential erythrocytosis, with central nervous system, peripheral, and presumed mesenteric ischemia.
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7/147. Intramedullary abscess resulting from disseminated cryptococcosis despite immune restoration in a patient with AIDS.

    We report on a case of cryptococcal intramedullary abscess, which occurred three years after a disseminated cryptococcosis and two years after a lymph node cryptococcal recurrence in a HIV-infected patient who exhibited a long-standing immune restoration. At the time of diagnosis, CD4( ) lymphocyte-count was 640x10(6)/l and HIV viral load was undetectable. Spinal involvement is rare during cryptococcosis of the central nervous system. As far as we are aware, there is only one case of proven intramedullary cryptococcal abscess reported in the literature and this case is then the second one. The significant and sustained increase in CD4 count following effective antiretroviral therapy was probably associated with only a partial immune restitution that did not allow to avoid the occurrence of the cryptococcal medullar abscess. Finally, this case raises the question of when to stop secondary prophylaxis of cryptococcal disease after increase in CD4 cell count under antiretroviral therapy.
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8/147. Ocular and central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis in a pregnant woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To describe an atypical case of central nervous system and ocular paracoccidioidomycoses simulating ocular toxoplasmosis in a pregnant woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). DESIGN: Interventional case report. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 25-year-old pregnant woman with AIDS, presented with a severe ocular inflammation in the right eye involving the choroid, retina, and the optic disk, which rapidly progressed to retinal detachment, iris neovascularization, and neovascular glaucoma. The left eye was normal. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focal hypodense contrast-enhanced ring lesion in the brain. serum antibody titers were negative for toxoplasma gondii, but the polymerase chain reaction was positive for the parasite in the vitreous sample. The patient responded partially to specific treatment for toxoplasmosis, and there was a small reduction in size of the brain lesion. She progressed to a blind painful eye, which was enucleated. paracoccidioides brasiliensis was found in the histopathological studies of the eye and oropharynx. With the diagnosis of disseminated ocular paracoccidioidomycoses, the patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with a satisfactory outcome and reduction in size of the brain lesion. CONCLUSION: Although ocular infection with ocular paracoccidioidomycoses is rare, this diagnosis should be considered when investigating ocular inflammation in a patient with AIDS.
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keywords = nervous system
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9/147. glioblastoma multiforme of the brain stem in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    glioblastoma of the brain stem is rare and there is no description of such a lesion in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The majority of intracerebral mass lesions are due either to toxoplasmosis or primary central nervous system lymphomas so that it is usually not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system in these patients. A 31-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected man presented with a four months history of slowly progressive deterioration of brainstem associated symptoms despite antitoxoplasmic therapy. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large ring enhancing lesion in the brainstem. Clinical and neuroradiological data could not establish a proper diagnosis and a stereotactic serial biopsy was undertaken. Histological examination of the specimen showed a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as the first reported case of GBM located in the brainstem in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. Patient management and effectiveness of stereotactic serial biopsy are discussed.
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keywords = nervous system
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10/147. Central hearing loss with a bilateral inferior colliculus lesion.

    A case is presented of a 43-year-old man with bilateral lesions of the inferior colliculus (IC) due to central nervous system lymphoma. Our patient was found to have relatively normal pure-tone averages with severely reduced bilateral word recognition scores. This case illustrates that the presentation of a partial bilateral IC lesion may be of severely reduced word recognition accompanied by nearly normal pure-tone hearing.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
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