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1/40. Progressive spastic myelopathy in a patient co-infected with hiv-1 and HTLV-II: autoantibodies to the human homologue of rig in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

    OBJECTIVE: Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are closely related human retroviruses. HTLV-I has been implicated in a chronic progressive myelopathy, known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). We sought to determine whether autoantibodies to brain antigens were present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient with chronic progressive spastic myelopathy with evidence of both hiv-1 infection and HTLV-I/II seropositivity. DESIGN: A 54-year-old bisexual man with clinical features of HAM/TSP of over 20 years' duration was followed. methods: We applied discriminatory dna amplification (polymerase chain reaction) to distinguish HTLV-I from HTLV-II and to verify co-infection with hiv-1. The patient's CSF was used to screen a human brain cDNA expression library to identify antibodies directed against brain antigens. Autoreactive bacteriophage clones were isolated and sequenced. RESULTS: The patient was found to be co-infected with both hiv-1 and HTLV-II, but not with HTLV-I. HTLV-II proviral levels in the peripheral blood remained relatively constant, despite therapy with zidovudine. Prominent oligoclonal banding of immunoglobulins was present in the patient's CSF. A single repeatedly reactive cDNA clone was identified, by screening with CSF antibody, sequenced, and found to be the human homologue of the rat insulinoma gene, rig. CONCLUSIONS: HTLV-II infection may predispose to development of a HAM/TSP-like illness. Autoimmune mechanisms, such as autoantibody formation, may play a role in pathogenesis.
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keywords = retrovirus
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2/40. Respiratory failure and death from HIV-associated myopathy.

    As increasing numbers of patients with HIV infection enter the medical system, the neuromuscular problems caused by this retrovirus are better defined. Recent attention has focused on the development of myopathy and/or polyneuropathy in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We report a patient whose initial presentation was that of progressive weakness. A diffuse HIV-induced myopathy was diagnosed that eventually resulted in ventilatory failure and death. The limited medical literature on this subject is summarized for practitioners who may encounter AIDS patients with muscle weakness.
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3/40. Brachial amyotrophic diplegia in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: widening the spectrum of motor neuron diseases occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive spinal muscular atrophy have been recognized to occur in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection, to our knowledge, brachial amyotrophic diplegia, a form of segmental motor neuron disease, has not been previously reported. Brachial amyotrophic diplegia results in severe lower motor neuron weakness and atrophy of the upper extremities in the absence of bulbar or lower extremity involvement, pyramidal features, bowel and bladder incontinence, and sensory loss. We describe a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive man without severe immunosuppression or prior AIDS-defining illnesses who had brachial amyotrophic diplegia. This disorder may represent one end of a spectrum of motor neuron diseases occurring with this retrovirus infection.
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keywords = retrovirus
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4/40. Steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy in a man dually infected with hiv-1 and HTLV-I.

    Two human retroviruses, hiv-1 and HTLV-I, have been associated with myelopathies in addition to other neurologic disorders. We report an American dually infected with hiv-1 and HTLV-I who developed steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy. This 28-year-old bisexual man developed interstitial pneumonitis and a transient midthoracic sensory level followed by the evolution of a slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and sensorimotor neuropathy. Serologic studies demonstrated coinfection with both hiv-1 and HTLV-I. Peripheral blood absolute CD4 count was persistently within the normal range. Cranial MRI was normal and spinal MRI showed T3-T10 atrophy. Serial CSF analyses demonstrated marked intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-I IgG, lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein and immunoglobulin g, and oligoclonal bands. hiv-1 was isolated from CSF but not from peripheral nerve. Lymphoproliferative studies confirmed spontaneous proliferation in both blood and CSF. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor and soluble CD8 were greatly elevated in blood and CSF when compared with patients with HIV-related vacuolar myelopathy and seronegative patients with other causes of myelopathy. Nerve biopsy showed epi- and endoneurial CD8 lymphocytic infiltration without vasculitis; muscle biopsy showed features of acute and chronic denervation. A 6-week course of prednisone produced sustained improvement in leg strength and walking times. We speculate that the myeloneuropathy was caused by HTLV-I in the setting of coinfection with hiv-1.
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5/40. Acute HIV infection presenting with painful swallowing and esophageal ulcers.

    We describe an acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in 16 homosexual men who presented with painful swallowing (odynophagia). Eleven men had a maculopapular rash and 3 had palatal ulcers. At esophagogastroduodenoscopy (endoscopy), multiple discrete esophageal ulcers measuring 0.3 to 1.5 cm in diameter were observed. Electron microscopy of biopsy specimens taken from the ulcer margins in 8 men revealed viral particles 120 to 160 nm in diameter whose morphologic characteristics were those of retroviruses. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion was documented in 15 men by Western blot analysis. In 3 men, hiv-1 was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in 2 men hiv-1 was isolated from peripheral blood monocytes, and in 1 man hiv-1 was isolated from tissue taken from the margins of the esophageal ulcers. These observations extend our knowledge of the clinical spectrum of acute HIV infection syndromes and suggest that cells in the esophagus are a target for hiv-1 infection.
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6/40. Detection and isolation of an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related virus (HTLV-III/LAV) from a Japanese boy with aids-related complex.

    We attempted to isolate acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus from a Japanese hemophiliac with aids-related complex (ARC). After cocultivation of leukocytes from his peripheral blood with those of a healthy adult, reverse transcriptase activity and AIDS viral antigens were detected by immunofluorescence and radio-immunoprecipitation methods, respectively. Moreover, an electron microscopic study revealed the presence of viral particles consistent with AIDS virus. These retroviruses were further propagated. We designated the first Japanese isolate of AIDS virus as YU-1.
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keywords = retrovirus
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7/40. Inverted T helper/T suppressor lymphocyte ratio is not a reliable indicator of coexistent HIV infection in the presence of carcinoma: report of a patient with ovarian carcinoma and inverted TH/TS ratio.

    patients with non-HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) related cancers may also have HIV infection. Inverted peripheral blood lymphocyte T helper/T suppressor ratios with selective loss of T helper cells may be used as a clinical screening test for HIV infection in these patients since they may be seronegative for retrovirus infection early in the course of infection. We describe a case in which carcinoma alone appeared to induce systemic changes that resembled coexistent HIV infection. Many of these abnormalities, including inverted TH/TS ratio with selective loss of T helper cells, improved in the immediate postoperative period, indicating that HIV infection was not present. We conclude then, that diagnosis of HIV infection should not be made without more definitive evidence of its presence than an inverted TH/TS ratio in a patient with carcinoma.
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keywords = retrovirus
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8/40. Transmission of retroviruses by transfusion of screened blood in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    We determined the rates of seroconversion to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus Type I (HTLV-I) in a cohort of patients receiving transfusions of blood components screened for antibody to hiv-1. Preoperative and postoperative serum samples were collected from 4163 adults undergoing cardiac surgery who received 36,282 transfusions of blood components. The postoperative samples from all patients were tested for serologic evidence of hiv-1 infection, and those that were positive were compared with the corresponding preoperative samples. One case of hiv-1 transmission by transfusion of screened blood components was identified; two preexisting hiv-1 infections were found. Samples from 2749 patients were tested similarly for serologic evidence of HTLV-I infection; these patients received 20,963 units of blood components. Five new cases and two preexisting cases of HTLV-I infection were detected. The observed risk of hiv-1 transmission by transfusion was 0.003 percent per unit; the risk of HTLV-I transmission was 0.024 percent per unit. We conclude that there is a very small risk of HTLV-I infection from transfused blood products that have been screened for antibodies to hiv-1, but that it is nearly 10-fold higher than the risk of hiv-1 infection.
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ranking = 4
keywords = retrovirus
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9/40. Neurotologic findings of a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    A Caucasian male contracted acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) following a blood transfusion during heart surgery. Four years later he developed dizziness, dysequilibrium, and emotional disturbances. Neurotologic evaluation implicated central vestibular and auditory dysfunction. Electronystagmographic findings showed ataxic pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus, with a total loss of caloric excitability. The auditory brain stem response indicated delayed absolute and interpeak latencies, and the synthetic sentence identification test yielded abnormally reduced scores bilaterally. psychological tests suggested organic brain disease with severe anxiety and depression. At autopsy, the AIDS retrovirus was found in mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells in the cortical and subcortical gray matter, cerebral and cerebellar white matter, and throughout the brain stem. Pathologic changes were consistent with the patient's neurotologic profile.
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keywords = retrovirus
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10/40. Quaternary neurosyphilis in a Haitian man with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    A 22-year-old Haitian man had a 15-month course of progressive meningitis accompanied by multiple cerebral infarcts. Multiple areas of stenosis and occlusion in all branches of the circle of willis, and hypertrophy of collateral perforating vessels at the base of the brain in a "puff of smoke" appearance typical of moyamoya disease were seen on cerebral angiogram 5 months before the patient died. At autopsy, the patient had meningovascular syphilis and a necrotizing encephalitis with massive treponemal invasion of the brain, the pathology of late-stage degenerative, "quaternary", neurosyphilis. The patient was also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Retrovirus-like particles 100 nm in diameter with dense cores were seen by electron microscopy. Nucleic acid obtained from the patient's brain contained sequences homologous to HIV dna as determined by dot blot hybridization. The moyamoya-like radiologic appearance of neurosyphilis has not been previously described. The autopsy finding of quaternary neurosyphilis in a patient with HIV infection supports the hypothesis that retrovirus may alter the natural history of syphilitic infection.
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keywords = retrovirus
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