Cases reported "Acrodynia"

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1/11. Mercury intoxication and arterial hypertension: report of two patients and review of the literature.

    Two children in the same household with symptomatic arterial hypertension simulating pheochromocytoma were found to be intoxicated with elemental mercury. The first child was a 4-year-old boy who presented with new-onset seizures, rash, and painful extremities, who was found to have a blood pressure of 171/123 mm Hg. An extensive investigation ensued. Elevated catecholamines were demonstrated in plasma and urine; studies did not confirm pheochromocytoma. Mercury levels were elevated. These findings prompted an evaluation of the family. A foster sister had similar findings of rash and hypertension. Both had been exposed to elemental mercury in the home. The family was temporarily relocated and chelation therapy was started. A medline search for mercury intoxication with hypertension found 6 reports of patients ranging from 11 months to 17 years old. All patients showed symptoms of acrodynia. Because of the clinical presentation and the finding of elevated catecholamines, most of the patients were first studied for possible pheochromocytoma. Subsequently, elevated levels of mercury were found. Three children had contact with elemental mercury from a broken thermometer, 2 had played with metallic mercury and 1 had poorly protected occupational exposure. All responded to chelation therapy. Severe systemic arterial hypertension in infants and children is usually secondary to an underlying disease process. The most frequent causes of hypertension in this group include renal parenchymal disease, obstructive uropathy, and chronic pyelonephritis associated with reflux and renal artery stenosis. Less frequent causes include adrenal tumors, pheochromocytomas, neurofibromas, and a number of familial forms of hypertension. Other causes include therapeutic and recreational drugs, notably sympathomimetics and cocaine, and rarely, heavy metals. In children with severe hypertension and elevated catecholamines, the physician should consider mercury intoxication as well as pheochromocytoma. The health hazards of heavy metals need to be reinforced to the medical profession and the general public. ( info)

2/11. Mercury exposure and cutaneous disease.

    Human contact with mercury has been ongoing for centuries and was previously considered a legitimate means of treating different cutaneous and systemic conditions. Toxicity from this heavy metal may occur from exposure to elemental, inorganic, and organic forms of mercury. This article outlines the signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning and the different clinical conditions with assorted cutaneous findings. ( info)

3/11. Mercury intoxication: it still exists.

    A3-year-old boy presented to the Hospital for Sick Children with systemic symptoms and oropharyngeal and peripheral extremity changes suggestive of Kawasaki disease. He was found to have severe hypertension. Investigation for a catecholamine-secreting tumor was negative. Toxins were considered when the patient's 20-month-old brother presented with similar symptoms, and the boys were subsequently diagnosed with elemental mercury poisoning. We review the literature on mercury intoxication and discuss the historical context, clinical syndrome (acrodynia), treatment, and radiologic findings of this unusual diagnosis. ( info)

4/11. A child with elemental mercury poisoning and unusual brain MRI findings.

    Mercury vapor poisoning is a serious and potentially fatal problem. Neurological manifestations involving the central nervous system are seen with chronic mercury intoxication. We present the case of a 10-year-old child who demonstrated acrodynia, seizures, and visual impairment following 20 days of exposure to elemental mercury at home. The initial blood mercury concentration was 27.7 microg/L (normal <2 microg/L) and the initial 24-hour urine mercury concentration was 34.4 microg/L (normal =10 microg/L). After 9 months of treatment with D-penicillamine, the patient's clinical condition, biochemical laboratory parameters, and mercury concentrations all returned to normal. The T2-weighted MRI images of the patient's brain initially showed multiple hyperintense lesions in cerebral white matter, left globus pallidus, and putamen, which also improved. ( info)

5/11. nifedipine in the treatment of acrodynia.

    A case of acrodynia in an eight-and-a-half-year-old girl is presented whose symptoms--profuse perspiration, swelling, desquamation, pain, itching of the extremities, pinkish color of the nose and cheeks and hypertension--responded sharply to nifedipine therapy. ( info)

6/11. Cutaneous manifestations of acrodynia (pink disease).

    A 14-month-old girl who presented with multiple systemic complaints was found to have gingivitis, peeling of her palms and soles, and a peculiar acral eruption. A diagnosis of acrodynia, or pink disease, was confirmed by elevated levels of mercury in the urine. The many cutaneous manifestations of this once common disease are discussed. ( info)

7/11. Mercury as a health hazard.

    Pink disease has virtually disappeared since teething powders were withdrawn. We describe a case in a boy who was exposed to metallic mercury vapour. We discuss the potential health hazard of spilled elemental mercury in the house and the difficulties of removing it from the environment. ( info)

8/11. acrodynia: exposure to mercury from fluorescent light bulbs.

    Medical attention was sought for a 23-month-old toddler because of anorexia, weight loss, irritability, profuse sweating, peeling and redness of his fingers and toes, and a miliarial rash. The diagnosis was mercury poisoning, and an investigation of his environment disclosed that he had been exposed to mercury from broken fluorescent light bulbs. acrodynia resulting from fluorescent bulbs has not been previously reported. ( info)

9/11. Reduction of serum cholesterol in two patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia by dichloroacetate.

    Dichloroacetate is known to reduce plasma cholesterol and triglyceride in patients with Fredrickson Types IIb or IV hyperlipoproteinemia. We now report the effects of chronic, oral dichloroacetate administration (as the sodium salt) in two patients with severe homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Dichloroacetate markedly reduced serum total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lowered the low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. One patient developed a polyneuropathy while receiving dichloroacetate which resolved following discontinuation of the drug. Because of its apparent toxicity, dichloroacetate cannot be recommended for chronic oral use. Investigation of the mechanism of its lipid-lowering effect, however, may provide insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of hypercholesterolemic disorders. ( info)

10/11. Domestic metallic mercury poisoning.

    In a family exposed to metallic mercury vapour two patients had acrodynia, one had the nephrotic syndrome, and one person remained well. Recognition of the variable manifestations of the disease and prevention of further exposure were the most important aspects of management. Recovery appeared to be complete as blood mercury levels fell to normal. Urinary mercury levels were too variable to be reliable as indications of progress. ( info)
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