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1/19. rhodococcus equi and cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant patient: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in animals. Human infection is rare. Increasing number of cases are being reported in immunosuppressed individuals mostly associated with hiv infection, but also in solid organ transplant recipients and leukemia/lymphoma patients. We report on an adult male who developed pneumonia and gastroenteritis 4 mo after receiving a renal transplant. CT scan of the lungs showed a dominant 2.5-cm upper lobe lung mass and smaller bilateral nodules. He underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy with fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the largest lung nodule. Smears showed histiocytic granulomatous inflammation, foamy macrophages, and acute inflammatory exudate. Scattered foamy macrophages displayed intracellular coccobacilli identifiable on Diff-Quik stain. A few cells with changes suggestive of viral inclusions were identified. cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunostain was positive in the cell block sections. lung cultures grew R. equi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of coinfection with R. equi and CMV.
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2/19. Medical management of pneumonia caused by rhodococcus equi in a renal transplant recipient.

    rhodococcus equi is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical picture is one of necrotizing pneumonia with a tendency toward cavitation and the formation of abscesses. We report a case of pneumonia caused by R equi in a renal transplant patient. An excellent response was shown to antibiotic treatment. Symptoms regressed, and the progressive disappearance of the lesion was confirmed on follow-up computed tomography scans. Surgical intervention or other invasive procedures were not required. To our knowledge, 14 cases of infection by R equi in solid-organ transplant patients have been described to date. Nine were recipients of a renal allograft. Surgery was required in many of these patients, and all the renal transplant recipients required the use of invasive therapeutic techniques, such as pleural drainage. This is the first case of a renal transplant recipient in whom radiologic presentation was as a solid nodule without ensuing cavitation that resolved exclusively with antibiotic treatment.
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3/19. Cavitary pneumonia due to rhodococcus equi in a heart transplant recipient.

    rhodococcus equi is an uncommon human pathogen that usually affects immunocompromised patients. We present a case of a 68-year-old male heart transplant recipient, who developed rhodococcal pneumonia with secondary bacteremia 10 months post-transplant. The patient was a retired carpenter who was involved in breeding of horses. He responded completely to the treatment with vancomycin and imipenem/cilastin, followed by oral ciprofloxacin and minocycline for total treatment duration of 5 months. This case highlights the association between an animal exposure and infection with a unique opportunistic pathogen.
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4/19. rhodococcus equi peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    The human rhodococcus equi (R. equi) infection is now emerging, although extrapulmonary manifestation and isolation from patients without human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection remains unusual. Considerable effort is required to correctly identify and diagnose this facultative pathogen in patients with peritonitis in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In the six cases of R. equi CAPD peritonitis reported in this series, diagnoses were made, on average, after 15 days and prolonged antibiotic therapy with morbidity in two patients. A diagnosis of R. equi should be considered in patients with suspected diphtheroid or nocardia CAPD peritonitis, even with no history of animal contact. This study is the largest series on R. equi CAPD peritonitis and highlights the impact of this disease.
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5/19. rhodococcus equi infection in patients with AIDS.

    rhodococcus equi is an emerging opportunistic pathogen of hiv-I infected patients. It is an aerobic, Gram-positive coryneform bacterium which acts as a facultative intracellular micro-organism, multiplying in the phagosome of macrophages. Eighteen cases of R. equi infection in hiv-I positive patients have now been reported. Sixteen of these had pneumonia, of which 12 had cavitating lung lesions. A history of contact with farm animals, which are the primary hosts of R. equi, was found in only three patients. There was a delay in establishing a definite diagnosis in most cases as this depended upon the isolation of R. equi from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or blood. Treatment included surgical resection in five patients and erythromycin with a second antibiotic in 13 cases, but II of the 18 patients died from the infection. In this report we describe our experience of R. equi pneumonia in two AIDS patients and review the published cases of the disease in man.
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6/19. VapB-positive rhodococcus equi infection in an hiv-infected patient in japan.

    rhodococcus equi, a bacterium present in soil, is a common cause of pneumonia in foals. This organism has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in humans, typically causing infection in immunocompromised hosts such as hiv-infected patients and organ transplant recipients. However, human infection with R. equi has not been reported in japan except in a case involving a laboratory worker. We report the first human case of VapB-positive R. equi pneumonia, which involved an hiv-infected patient living in an urban area in japan. The patient was treated successfully with 450 mg rifampicin and 600 mg tosufloxacin, even though his CD4 lymphocyte count at the time of diagnosis was 10/microl. The patient's dogs were suspected in the epidemiology of this infection, but unfortunately we could not isolate the organism from canine-associated specimens in this case. R. equi infections in companion animals have been thought to be very rare, but they may be increasing in dogs. Therefore, further epidemiological research may clarify the prevalence of R. equi infection and the factors predisposing dogs to this infection.
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7/19. Case report: rhodococcus equi pneumonia in a patient infected by the human immunodeficiency virus.

    rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular bacterium, is a common cause of pulmonary infection in farm animals, especially foals. Pulmonary and disseminated infection caused by this organism is occasionally seen in humans, especially in patients whose cell-mediated immunity has been altered by glucocorticoids or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Not surprisingly, the organism may cause serious disease in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected humans whose T cell-dependent immune system has been profoundly suppressed. This report describes an hiv infected patient with rhodococcus equi pneumonia and reviews nine additional hiv-infected patients. Treatment in humans is not standardized. Studies in foals indicate that erythromycin and rifampin together are the treatment of choice. The patient in this report responded to this treatment briefly before relapsing and dying of the infection.
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8/19. bacteremia due to rhodococcus equi--a case report.

    rhodococcus equi (R. equi) primarily causes zoonotic infections affecting grazing animals and is an unusual cause of infection in immunocompetent human beings. We report a case of bacteremia due to R. equi a rare isolate in a child suffering from protein energy malnutrition
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9/19. rhodococcus equi--an emerging human pathogen in immunocompromized hosts: a report of four cases from malaysia.

    rhodococcus equi, a recognized pathogen in horses, is emerging as a human opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromized hosts. We describe four immunocompromized patients who had serious R. equi infections with an overall mortality of 75%. The natural habitat of R. equi is soil, particularly soil contaminated with animal manure. Necrotizing pneumonia is the commonest form of infection but extrapulmonary infections, such as wound infections and subcutaneous abscess, have also been described in humans. R. equi is cultured easily in ordinary non-selective media. Large, smooth, irregular colonies appear within 48 hours. It is a facultative, intracellular, nonmotile, non-spore forming, gram-positive coccobacillus, which is weakly acid-fast staining and bears a similarity to diphtheroids. It forms a salmon-colored pigment usually after 48 hours incubation. A particular characteristic of this organism is that it undergoes synergistic hemolysis with some bacteria on sheep blood agar. R. equi may be misidentified as diphtheroids, mycobacterium species, or nocardia. in vitro R. equi is usually susceptible to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, aminoglycosides, rifampin, imipenem and meropenem. The organism can be difficult to eradicate, making treatment challenging. Increased awareness of the infection may help with early diagnosis and timely treatment.
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10/19. rhodococcus equi infection in the patient with AIDS: literature review and report of an unusual case.

    rhodococcus equi is an aerobic, intracellular, gram-positive rod-coccus that is partially acid fast. The organism is primarily a pathogen in animals and has only rarely been seen in immunocompromised humans. Its most common manifestation is a slowly progressive pneumonia that may cavitate. Infections are thought to be acquired via respiratory exposure to animals or soil. R. equi infections are difficult to treat, usually requiring prolonged administration of parenteral antibiotics and often necessitating surgical drainage. A case of cavitary pneumonia and recurrent bacteremia with R. equi in a patient with AIDS is reported, and the current literature on R. equi infections in humans is reviewed.
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