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11/16. Cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as acute upper respiratory tract obstruction.

    An unusual case of cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as acute upper airway obstruction and demanding urgent tracheostomy is reported. diagnosis was established by microscopic examination of the pus and culture of actinomyces israelii. Repeated surgical drainage of the purulent foci and prolonged treatment with penicillin obtained resolution of the disease. Clinicians dealing with acute head and neck swellings should always consider actinomycosis as a possible diagnosis.
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keywords = neck
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12/16. Pediatric actinomycosis of the head and neck.

    actinomycosis is a rare soft tissue infection caused by a gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria. It is seen only approximately once a year in major medical centers, and is rarer still in the pediatric population. About 50% of all cases of actinomycosis involve the head and neck. The organism is very difficult to isolate in culture and the differential diagnosis is extensive, prompting one reviewer to name actinomycosis the "masquerader" of the head and neck. We review three cases of actinomycosis over the past ten years (1981-1990) at texas Children's Hospital, Houston, texas.
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keywords = neck
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13/16. actinomycosis of the neck: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    A patient with actinomyces infection of the posterior neck was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The lesion presented as a recurrent, firm, and indurated mass that was clinically diagnosed as adenitis and cellulitis and was thought to be a lymphoma 6 months after the onset of his illness. Smears and cell block sections of the aspirate showed characteristic colonies ("sulfur granules") of actinomyces. Subsequent regional lymph node biopsy revealed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia.
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ranking = 5
keywords = neck
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14/16. Cervicofacial actinomycosis with paravertebral spread: a case report.

    We report a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis with paravertebral extension in a 60-year-old man who presented with recurrent neck masses. diagnosis was confirmed on culture and histology of pus and debris obtained from surgical drainage. He improved only after lengthy in-hospital high dose penicillin therapy. He is currently well and is on maintenance doxycycline therapy for 6 months following the high dose penicillin therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neck
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15/16. Unusual presentation of cervicothoracic actinomycosis complicated by pericardial effusion: a case report.

    actinomycosis is a chronic-suppurative disease characterized by abscesses and draining sinus tracts, with fibrosis and granulation involving the face and neck and thoracic or pelvic-abdominal regions. Dermatological findings in patients at high risk are the key to the correct diagnosis. actinomycosis is frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed until the correct diagnosis is made after surgical resection. Alcoholic, homeless, and disadvantaged individuals and patients with other factors predisposing to infection including poor dentition, alcoholism, seizures, and trauma are common in the emergency department; thus, emergency physicians should be aware of the different presentations and complications of this disease. The treatment of choice is a high dose of penicillin in conjunction with surgical debridement. The prognosis is excellent with correct diagnosis and therapy.
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keywords = neck
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16/16. actinomycosis of the posterior triangle: a case report and review of the literature.

    actinomycosis presents acutely as an abscess, or as a chronic lesion mimicking malignancy, tuberculosis, or aspergillosis. Most disease involves the mouth and its immediate site of lymphatic drainage, the anterior triangle of the neck. We present a case of actinomycosis at the apex of the posterior triangle, suspected of being a malignancy, and discuss the importance of being aware of this as a cause of neck lumps. The diagnosis is usually made late because of the difficulties in culturing the organism, or in identifying characteristic 'sulphur granules' in pus or biopsy specimens. For these reasons, the disease is underdiagnosed. When acute or chronic neck lesions prove difficult to diagnose, microscopy and prolonged anaerobic culture of pus and biopsy specimens should be performed in addition in Ziehl-Neelsen staining, tuberculosis and fungal cultures. The tests should be repeated if negative. Specific treatment requires prolonged courses of antibiotics, despite adequate surgical excision, to prevent relapse.
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