Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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1/36. Use of breath-activated Patient Controlled analgesia for acute pain management in a patient with quadriplegia.

    We report the use of breath-activated Patient Controlled analgesia (PCA) for the provision of analgesia in a quadriplegic patient with traumatic neck injury. This provided good pain relief, decreased opioid complications, improved perceptions of self-control, smoothed recovery and enhanced patient, family as well as staff satisfaction. The setup and principles of its use in a patient with high anxiety and unable to use conventionally activated PCA are illustrated.
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2/36. Radicular acute pain after epidural anaesthesia with the technique of loss of resistance with normal saline solution.

    Epidural anaesthesia using the loss of resistance to saline technique, without air, was successfully performed in a 65-year-old man scheduled for elective vascular surgery of the right leg. Epidural catheterisation was uneventful. Fifteen minutes after the initial dose of plain 0.5% bupivacaine, the patient experienced severe pain in his lower abdomen and legs which coincided with a supplementary injection of 2 ml bupivacaine and 50 microgram fentanyl, and a change from the lateral to the supine position. General anaesthesia was induced and CT and MRI scans were performed showing trapped air in the epidural space at the L4 level causing compression of the thecal sac. After excluding other causes, the spontaneous entry of air through the Tuohy needle was thought to be the most likely explanation for this complication. The patient recovered uneventfully.
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keywords = acute pain
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3/36. Acute varicella zoster with postherpetic hyperhidrosis as the initial presentation of hiv infection.

    A 31-year-old man presented with acute pain in his left arm and hemorrhagic vesicles that followed his left 8th cervical nerve. A diagnosis of herpes zoster was made, and the patient was treated with valacyclovir. He refused testing for antibodies to hiv because he denied being at risk. Two months later he returned with postherpetic neuralgia and postherpetic hyperhidrosis in the distribution of the vesicles, which had since resolved. serology for hiv at this visit was positive, and the patient admitted to having sexual relations with prostitutes. Six months later the patient was being treated with triple antiretroviral therapy, and all signs and symptoms of postherpetic zoster had resolved. This case report documents the need for hiv testing in patients with unusual presentations of herpes zoster even if they initially deny being at risk.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = acute pain
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4/36. Acute painful diabetic neuropathy: two patients with recent insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Two young men developed an acute painful peripheral neuropathy a few weeks after being diagnosed to suffer from an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In both cases, peripheral nerve biopsy exhibited a few features of acute axonal degeneration. Additionally, in the first case there was a lymphocytic infiltrate around an endoneurial capillary, and in the second case there were several mast cells in the endoneurium of every fascicle examined. A few months later, the acute pain had disappeared in both cases. Only a few cases of acute painful diabetic neuropathy have been reported so far. A vascular origin seems unlikely and metabolic disorders are probably due to a contemporary severe weight loss. An auto-immune mechanism is an alternative explanation.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = acute pain
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5/36. Successful use of oral methadone after failure of intravenous morphine and ketamine.

    We describe an opioid-tolerant patient with severe acute pain which was unrelieved by morphine and ketamine via intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, but almost totally relieved by methadone. In the previous 24 hours, 509 mg of intravenous morphine and 769 mg of ketamine had been used and this was replaced by 200 mg of oral methadone. This implies that the success of methadone in morphine tolerant patients chiefly involves factors other than its role as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, and that methadone should be considered as a replacement for morphine when the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine has proved ineffective.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = acute pain
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6/36. Inadvertent conjunctival trauma related to contact with drug container tips: a masquerade syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report the diagnosis, clinical course, and management of acute painful red eye syndrome associated with unintentional tube- or bottle-tip-induced conjunctival trauma. DESIGN: A small, noncomparative, interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve eyes of 12 patients (8 female and 4 male, aged 21-84 years) who were urgently reported or referred with a variety of diagnoses resulting from acute onset of red, painful eye. Four eyes had corneal transplants, two were recovering from herpetic keratitis, two had undergone cataract surgery or a laser in situ keratomileusis procedure, one had a corneal neurotrophic ulcer, and one used a contact lens. All the patients had received new medications (ophthalmic ointments in nine patients, topical drops in three patients) within 1 week before onset of symptoms. INTERVENTION: Assessment of method of self-administration of topical medication, evaluation of the ocular surface lesion, and patient education. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: association of patient behavior with ocular surface lesions. RESULTS: All 12 patients presented red, painful eyes, congested lower palpebral conjunctiva, epithelial conjunctival erosions, and episcleritis. In all patients, direct contact of the tube or bottle-tip with the affected area of the conjunctiva was ascertained by inspection. Instructions on proper method of drug administration and eye patching with lubrication were followed, within 2 weeks, by healing of conjunctival lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Drug containers may cause nonintentional conjunctival trauma and simulate severe ocular disorders. physicians should be aware of this diagnosis in any case of prolonged and unexplained ocular irritation and should instruct patients as to the proper instillation of topical ophthalmic medications.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = acute pain
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7/36. benzodiazepines for acute pain in children.

    When pediatric pain is refractory and unresponsive to appropriate use of analgesic agents, there might be additional physical or psychologic dimensions of the pain that are not addressed by the analgesics. In addition to appropriate analgesic therapy, the psychologic needs of the child should be directly addressed and appropriate adjunctive physical modalities employed. Although benzodiazepines lack direct analgesic effects, they can reduce the distress associated with acute pain states by decreasing anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms that can be associated with acute pain. Intermediate or long-acting benzodiazepines in modest doses can be useful adjunctive agents when used short term for the treatment of selected acute pain complaints. In the highly distressed school-age child or adolescent with pain complaints relatively unresponsive to appropriate care, judicious use of benzodiazepines is worthy of consideration.
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ranking = 1.75
keywords = acute pain
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8/36. Acute visual loss after initiation of antihypertensive therapy: case report.

    We report the case of a 50-year-old man who reported sudden, painless loss of vision in his left eye after starting antihypertensive therapy. Potential causes of acute painless unilateral visual loss are discussed, as is the initial management of hypertension in asymptomatic patients.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = acute pain
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9/36. acute pain in advanced cancer: an opioid dosing strategy and illustration.

    Opioid dosing strategies for acute pain differ from strategies for chronic pain management. The basic principles of effective, safe dosing are rapid titration to the onset of analgesia followed by maintenance infusions based upon the titrated dose. This article presents guidelines and case histories for safe and effective dosing.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = acute pain
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10/36. The impact of regional anaesthesia on outcome: a patient's perspective.

    Peripheral nerve catheters are being used increasingly to manage acute pain. Whilst acknowledged as effective, their broader implications for patient outcome are less clear. In this case report, we describe the way in which not only was the pain management of an ischaemic leg successful via a sciatic nerve catheter, but decision-making around this strategy affected outcome.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = acute pain
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