Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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11/13. Allogeneic liver transplantation for hepatic veno-occlusive disease after bone marrow transplantation--clinical and immunological considerations.

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a frequent complication early after bone marrow transplantation. In cases of severe liver failure treatment by allogeneic liver transplantation is possible. We report the clinical and immunological course of a patient after bone marrow transplantation for AML and subsequent allogeneic liver transplantation for severe hepatic VOD. After liver transplantation the patient recovered well clinically. Early after liver transplantation he had large numbers of liver donor T and NK lymphocytes in his circulation. He had no liver graft rejection, but he developed mild acute GVHD which was caused by liver graft-derived T lymphocytes. Two years after transplantation he had persistent microchimerism with donor liver cells detectable in his bone marrow. Now 36 months after transplantation, the patient has no evidence of recurrent leukemia, stable liver function, and no signs of graft-versus-host disease or bone marrow dysfunction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chimerism
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12/13. Chemotherapy and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor primed donor leukocyte infusion for treatment of relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Two patients affected by acute leukemia relapsed 10 and 12 months respectively after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. They were treated with aggressive chemotherapy and then infused with HLA-identical donor leukocytes (DLI) collected after recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) administration. A total of 5.6 and 6.3 x 10(6)/kg CD34 cells, 2.7 and 3.0 x 10(4)/kg CFU-GM, 4.7 and 4.4 x 10(8)/kg MNC, 4.6 and 3.9 x 10(9)/kg PMN respectively were infused. Both patients achieved complete remission (CR) and complete chimerism was re-established. One patient developed grade IV acute graft-versus-host disease of the liver requiring immunosuppression and he died in CR from disseminated aspergillosis, 7 months after chemotherapy; one patient is alive in relapse 12 months after treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chimerism
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13/13. Additional immunotherapy on the basis of increasing mixed hematopoietic chimerism after allogeneic BMT in children with acute leukemia: is there an option to prevent relapse?

    The success of allogeneic BMT (allo-BMT) in children with acute leukemias is mainly affected by relapse. There is evidence that these patients have only a little or no benefit from additional immunotherapy if the treatment is started in frank hematological relapse. Recently we were able to demonstrate that pediatric patients with acute leukemias and increasing mixed chimerism (MC) post-transplant have a significantly enhanced risk of developing relapse. We asked whether there is a possibility of preventing relapse, eg by withdrawal of post-transplant immunosuppression or by administration of donor lymphocytes in an early phase of the development of relapse. We present the case reports of two children (MDS and AML) with rapidly increasing MC in whom withdrawal of post-transplant immunosuppression or donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) did prevent relapse.
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ranking = 5
keywords = chimerism
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