Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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1/368. Post-transplant acute myeloid leukemia (PT-AML).

    Acute myeloid leukemia following organ transplantation (PT-AML) is a rare event with only a few published cases in the literature. We present three patients who developed AML (FAB M1, M5, M4) after renal, double lung or liver transplantation. Molecular analysis detected a t(9;11) in one patient and documented the recipient origin of AML in a second patient. All patients were treated with chemotherapy. immunosuppression was reduced to cyclosporin A (CsA) and prednisone in two patients and to prednisone alone in one patient. Two patients achieved a complete remission (CR), with a remission duration of 4.6 months in one patient, the other patient died from septicemia after 15.2 months in CR. One patient was refractory to chemotherapy and died from septicemia. This report together with the documented cases in the literature suggests that PT-AML (1) develops after a median interval of 5 years after transplantation with variable latency (range, <1-17 years); (2) is heterogeneous with respect to FAB classification; (3) shows chromosomal and molecular changes typical of therapy-related AML (t-AML: -7, 8, 11q23, inv16, t(15;17)); (4) standard chemotherapy is feasible after reduction of immunosuppression and produces a CR rate of 56% with a median remission duration of 4.6 months and an overall survival of 2.6 months; (5) the major complications are early death (25%), gram-negative septicemia, progressive disease or relapse. This review provides diagnostic and therapeutic experiences and guidelines for the management of this increasing group of post-transplant patients.
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2/368. Death from hyponatremia as a result of acute water intoxication in an Army basic trainee.

    Several reports during the past 15 years have described hyponatremia as a result of excessive water intake by athletes during endurance races. The high rates of fluid consumption have been attributed to the desire of athletes to prevent heat injury. The military has adopted guidelines for programmed drinking to maintain performance and minimize the risk of heat casualties. As military personnel increase their fluid intake, their risk of hyponatremia as a result of water overload increases. A potentially life-threatening complication is acute water intoxication. We report the first known death of an Army basic trainee as a result of acute water intoxication. The misinterpretation of his symptoms as those of dehydration and heat injury led to continued efforts at oral hydration until catastrophic cerebral and pulmonary edema developed.
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3/368. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in hematologic complete remission.

    The authors describe the cases of three patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia, in complete remission, who rapidly developed neurologic symptoms leading to death. Neither clinical characteristics, nor radiological or microbiological procedures, allowed an etiological diagnosis of the neurologic syndrome. Post-mortem examination of the brain showed both macroscopic and microscopic findings compatible with acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. The difficulty in distinguishing this entity from other CNS disease-related complications (e.g. leukemia infiltration, drug toxicity, hemorrhages) should not lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of this complication. We believe that with more attention to the possibility of this complication there would probably be both a greater possibility of collecting clinical informations about the real impact of this dramatic disease and a stronger hope of finding the right treatment for it.
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4/368. resuscitation of the multitrauma patient with head injury.

    head injury remains the leading cause of death from trauma. The definitive method for eliminating preventable death from traumatic brain injury remains elusive. New research underscores the danger of inadequate or inappropriate support of oxygenation, ventilation, and perfusion to cerebral tissues. The belief that sensitivity to hypotension makes the patient with head injury fundamentally different is critical to nursing strategies. The conventional concept that fluid restriction decreases cerebral edema in patients with head injury must be weighed against mounting evidence that aggressive hemodynamic support decreases the incidence of subsequent organ system failure and secondary brain injury. New evidence has triggered a scrutiny of conventional interventions. A search for optimal treatments based on prospective randomized trials will continue. Development of neuroprotective drugs and use of hypertonic saline may be on the horizon. In an effort to ensure optimal outcome, contemporary trauma nursing must embrace new concepts, shed outmoded therapy, and ensure compliance with the basic tenets of critical care for the multitrauma patient with head injury.
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5/368. Scintigraphic imaging of lower-extremity acute venous thrombosis.

    The need for a radiopharmaceutical that will yield a definitive diagnosis of acute venous thrombosis in the lower extremities is evident from (1) the current difficulty in making a diagnosis on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms alone; (2) the sometimes inadequate or less sensitive diagnosis made on the basis of contrast venography or ultrasound; and (3) the need to prevent pulmonary embolism, death, and other long-term sequelae that may result from undetected acute venous thrombosis. A new radiopharmaceutical was recently approved for use in the scintigraphic imaging of acute venous thrombosis in the lower extremities of patients who have signs and symptoms of acute venous thrombosis. This radiopharmaceutical (ACUTECT) is a complex of the small synthetic peptide apcitide and the radionuclide technetium (Tc) 99m (99mTc-apcitide). Apcitide binds to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors, which are expressed on the surface of activated platelets, making the radiopharmaceutical specific for acute, not chronic, thrombi. 99mTc-Apcitide allows accurate imaging of the entire lower extremities, including the calf. It has an excellent safety profile, is easy to administer by injection into an antecubital vein, and allows early imaging of acute deep-vein thrombosis (10 to 60 minutes postinjection). 99mTc-Apcitide may be used as an alternative to contrast venography and a complement to ultrasonography in the detection of acute venous thrombosis in the lower extremities.
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6/368. Pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosa and acute pancreatitis: a rare presentation of choledochal cyst.

    Pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosa is an unusual cause of death in a young adult. This case describes an apparently healthy young woman who presented with severe acute pancreatitis, which is a recognized complication of a choledochal cyst. autopsy examination revealed advanced malignancy with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma penetrating the wall of the choledochal cyst and metastatic adenocarcinoma in the lymph nodes, lungs and kidneys. This case emphasises the unusual presentation of a choledochal cyst with acute pancreatitis and the aggressive nature of malignancy associated with this congenital anomaly.
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7/368. Post-traumatic pancreatitis with associated aneurysm of the splenic artery: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    In patients with acute pancreatitis, profuse gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with a high death rate. The cause of such bleeding must be evaluated and the bleeding controlled urgently. Aneurysm formation is usually the cause of the bleeding. angiography is needed to make a definitive diagnosis and the bleeding site should be controlled by angiographic embolization if possible. If this fails, aneurysm resection is necessary. Two patients are described. Both had aneurysms of the splenic artery, presenting as massive gastrointestinal bleeding in one patient and bleeding into an associated pseudocyst in the other. They required surgical repair, which was successful in both cases.
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8/368. Wischnewski ulcers and acute pancreatitis in two hospitalized patients with cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis, and hypothermia.

    Accidental hypothermia has been described in the forensic literature but reports of occurrence in hospitalized patients are rare. Associated anatomic lesions include acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis and characteristic acute gastric ulcers termed Wischnewski ulcers. We report here two patients with cirrhosis and ascites; one also had hepatocellular carcinoma. portal vein thrombosis, acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis and Wischnewski ulcers were present in both. The clinical records documented hypothermia that progressed over several days. temperature nadirs of 31.0 degrees C (87.8 degrees F) and 32.2 degrees C (90.0 degrees F) were recorded in each patient, respectively, one day before death, although each transiently reached temperatures that did not register on standard monitoring devices. This is the first report that chronicles antemortem body temperatures in hypothermic patients with Wischnewski ulcers and pancreatitis at autopsy. Also, the association of these findings with portal vein thrombosis and cirrhosis has not been previously described. We discuss this constellation of findings with regard to possible mechanistic interrelations.
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9/368. Acute rupture of an aortic false aneurysm treated with a stent-graft.

    PURPOSE: To report the use of an aortic endograft to treat a ruptured false aneurysm at the anastomosis of an aortofemoral bypass graft. methods AND RESULTS: A 68-year-old man with a 30-year-old aorto-right femoral bypass and multiple comorbidities was admitted to the hospital complaining of acute abdominal pain. Imaging identified a 60-mm ruptured aortic false aneurysm with associated retroperitoneal hematoma, a 9-cm right femoral false aneurysm, and a calcified 23-mm left common iliac aneurysm. Two slightly overlapping Vanguard straight stent-grafts were implanted in the aorta and left common iliac artery in an emergency procedure owing to the patient's high surgical risk. The anastomotic false aneurysm and the bypass were excluded. A left-to-right femorofemoral bypass was performed to re-establish flow to the right femoral artery with ligation of the external iliac artery. The patient recovered uneventfully. He remained well with a successful repair until his death of a myocardial infarction 6 months after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular grafting can be used successfully for the urgent treatment of aortic false aneurysm rupture.
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10/368. Radiological findings in acute adult epiglottitis.

    Acute epiglottitis is a rare but life-threatening disease that commonly occurs in children, and also rarely in adults. The symptoms may be mild and non-specific before a rapid onset of airway obstruction occurs. early diagnosis is essential, as delayed treatment is associated with a high rate of complications including death. We present the clinical and radiological findings of this unusual condition in an adult.
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