Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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1/253. Dopaminergic therapy in acute encephalitis lethargica.

    We describe a patient with an acute illness, with clinical features characteristic of encephalitis lethargica, who responded repeatedly to trials of an apomorphine infusion and subsequently to oral levodopa therapy. This observation implies a direct acute neurotropic effect of the encephalitis on nigral dopaminergic cells. Dopaminergic medication may therefore be helpful in the acute stage of encephalitis lethargica as well as in the delayed post-encephalitic parkinsonian phase of the syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/253. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in hematologic complete remission.

    The authors describe the cases of three patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia, in complete remission, who rapidly developed neurologic symptoms leading to death. Neither clinical characteristics, nor radiological or microbiological procedures, allowed an etiological diagnosis of the neurologic syndrome. Post-mortem examination of the brain showed both macroscopic and microscopic findings compatible with acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. The difficulty in distinguishing this entity from other CNS disease-related complications (e.g. leukemia infiltration, drug toxicity, hemorrhages) should not lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of this complication. We believe that with more attention to the possibility of this complication there would probably be both a greater possibility of collecting clinical informations about the real impact of this dramatic disease and a stronger hope of finding the right treatment for it.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = encephalitis
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3/253. Acute measles encephalitis of the delayed type.

    An acute measles encephalitis with epilepsia partialis continua occurred three months after measles in a previously healthy child with no detectable immunological defect. Levels of measles antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were high, and tubular inclusions of the type seen in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found in nerve cell nuclei. A communicating high-pressure hydrocephalus developed in the later stage of the disease. This case demonstrates that measles encephalitis of the delayed type should systematically be considered in children with acute encephalitis.
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ranking = 1.1428571428571
keywords = encephalitis
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4/253. Acute generalized varicella zoster in the setting of preexisting generalized erythema.

    We report a 5-year-old girl who initially had generalized erythema from scarlet fever. Four days later she developed sheets of monomorphous vesicles in the areas of erythema. A Tzanck smear of a vesicle base showed multinucleated giant cells, and viral culture grew varicella zoster virus, confirming a clinical diagnosis of varicella. This case illustrates that, with a background of preexisting erythema, varicella may present in an atypical manner.
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ranking = 0.15426826708987
keywords = varicella zoster, varicella, zoster
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5/253. Fulminant herpes hepatitis in a healthy adult: a treatable disorder?

    hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a potentially fatal disorder that is often not considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hepatitis. This disease occurs most often in patients with impaired immunity and is very uncommon in healthy patients. HSV hepatitis presents with a wide clinical spectrum, and the clinical diagnosis is difficult. We describe a case of disseminated herpes virus infection with fulminant hepatitis mimicking an acute human immunodeficiency virus infection in a 33-year-old healthy man. Preliminary studies suggest that early treatment of HSV hepatitis with acyclovir may be beneficial in these patients. A high index of suspicion and the availability of early diagnostic tools, such as HSV dna detection, may dramatically improve the clinical outcome of severe HSV hepatitis.
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ranking = 0.019429373413235
keywords = herpes
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6/253. Primary disseminated varicella presenting as an acute abdomen.

    We report a patient admitted with acute abdominal pain initially thought to be due to pancreatitis of unclear etiology. Later during his hospitalization he was diagnosed with primary varicella infection. The association between varicella and systemic multiorgan disease needs to be recognized in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. A prompt diagnosis prevents delay in the treatment of varicella, as well as in monitoring for and preventing complications of disseminated infection.
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ranking = 0.065568961026083
keywords = varicella
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7/253. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.
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ranking = 0.0032382289022059
keywords = herpes
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8/253. Acute varicella zoster with postherpetic hyperhidrosis as the initial presentation of hiv infection.

    A 31-year-old man presented with acute pain in his left arm and hemorrhagic vesicles that followed his left 8th cervical nerve. A diagnosis of herpes zoster was made, and the patient was treated with valacyclovir. He refused testing for antibodies to hiv because he denied being at risk. Two months later he returned with postherpetic neuralgia and postherpetic hyperhidrosis in the distribution of the vesicles, which had since resolved. serology for hiv at this visit was positive, and the patient admitted to having sexual relations with prostitutes. Six months later the patient was being treated with triple antiretroviral therapy, and all signs and symptoms of postherpetic zoster had resolved. This case report documents the need for hiv testing in patients with unusual presentations of herpes zoster even if they initially deny being at risk.
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ranking = 0.15950310140253
keywords = herpes zoster, varicella zoster, varicella, zoster, herpes
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9/253. herpes simplex-associated erythema multiforme (HAEM): a clinical therapeutic dilemma.

    erythema multiforme of the mouth is an acute vesiculo-ulcerative lesion, which presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. herpes simplex is described as the most frequent cause of this disease. Controversy exists in the literature as to the definition of oral erythema multiforme and the role of systemic corticosteroids in its treatment. Recent treatment protocols advocate the use of systemic acyclovir, especially in cases triggered by the herpes simplex virus. Two cases of successful treatment of oral erythema multiforme with systemic corticosteroids after acyclovir treatment had failed are presented.
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ranking = 0.0032382289022059
keywords = herpes
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10/253. Subacute encephalopathy in a 5-year-old boy.

    A 5-year-old boy presented with an acute ataxia and altered mental status. Although he initially recovered from these symptoms, he presented a second time with myoclonus and seizures and rapidly became vegetative. cerebrospinal fluid studies, magnetic resonance imaging, and brain biopsy all confirmed the presence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Despite courses of therapy with cimetidine, amantadine, ribavirin, and inosine, no clinical improvement has been seen. Clinicians need to be alert to the possibility of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis even in the vaccinated child in the appropriate clinical setting.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = encephalitis
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