Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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11/253. Bilateral substantia nigra changes on MRI in a patient with encephalitis lethargica.

    A 33-year-old woman admitted for meningoencephalitis had features of encephalitis lethargica develop on her third day of illness. She had ophthalmoplegia, akinetic mutism, and prominent extrapyramidal signs consisting of lip and hand tremors, cogwheel rigidity, and facial bradykinesia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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12/253. High-grade glioma mimicking acute viral encephalitis--three case reports.

    The clinical features of viral encephalitis consist of headache, fever, seizures and encephalopathy. We report three patients with high-grade gliomas presenting with encephalitic illnesses. The diagnosis of brain tumour should always be borne in mind if definite evidence for a viral infection is not obtained.
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ranking = 0.81362807993582
keywords = encephalitis
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13/253. The value of serial auditory brainstem response in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    A total of 98 serial auditory brainstem responses from 17 patients (11 boys and 6 girls) with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were compared with their clinical course and stages. These patients were exposed to measles early in life (at 1.8 /- 1.4 years old) with the average onset of the disease at 8.8 /- 0.7 years of age. The main abnormalities of their auditory brainstem responses were a prolongation of waves I, III, and V, and of the I to V interpeak interval. Wave V thresholds were also elevated. These effects on the auditory brainstem responses started 1 to 2 years after onset of neurologic signs. I to V interpeak latency became prolonged with the progress of clinical stages, especially in Jabbour's clinically advanced stage IV. In two patients with an acute progressive type of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, very rapid deterioration with a distorted wave pattern of later components was observed. These findings suggest rostrocaudal progression in the central nervous system of both long-term and fulminant cases.
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ranking = 0.97635369592298
keywords = encephalitis
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14/253. Case report: acute encephalitis immediately prior to acute onset of hepatitis c virus infection.

    A 34-year-old male presented with acute viral encephalitis of unknown aetiology with subsequent acute onset of hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection. Although the neurological syndrome improved after administration of acyclovir, jaundice appeared. Neurological complications of HCV infections have rarely been described. In this case report, we discuss the close relationship between neurological syndromes and HCV infection. In the future, we hope that further discussion of clinical cases will determine whether or not the HCV produces neurological manifestations.
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ranking = 0.81362807993582
keywords = encephalitis
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15/253. Cognitive outcome after emergent treatment of acute herpes simplex encephalitis with acyclovir.

    Longitudinally designed case studies, reporting cognitive and psychosocial outcome of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE), were conducted prior to current antiviral medication usage and primarily in persons with either left hemispheric or bilateral temporal lobe involvement. The current study demonstrated relatively better outcome (cognitive recovery and functional independence for activities of daily life) in an individual treated with IV acyclovir within hours of initial symptoms and whose CT scans showed right hemispheric involvement. In contrast with earlier case reports, no semantic specific categories of memory impairment were noted on serial assessment. The time from first symptoms to antiviral medical treatment appears to be the best predictor of outcome from HSVE. Historical case studies with relatively poorer outcome and differing deficits suggest survivors of HSVE are a heterogenous group. Variability in anatomic lesions and time to treatment contribute to outcome.
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ranking = 0.83207107768448
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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16/253. A case of Japanese encephalitis: CT and MRI findings in acute and convalescent stages.

    We studied the CT and MR images of a patient with Japanese encephalitis. The first symptom was general malaise with high fever. The diagnosis of meningoencephalitis was made by spinal tap and clinical presentation. CT on the third day of illness showed no significant findings. MRI on the fifth day of illness demonstrated that the left thalamus and bilateral putamen were hyperintense on T2-weighted images. On CT one month later, the density in the thalamus and bilateral putamen was normal. MRI two month later showed high signal intensity only in the left thalamus. The patient recovered, but was judged to have dementia according to the simple dementia scale of Hasegawa. Flaccid paralysis was observed during the acute period.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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17/253. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical and histopathological features.

    We report a woman with acute arsenic poisoning, who developed an erythroderma with vesicles and pustules after the ingestion of 8-16 g of sodium arsenite. Simultaneously, she presented a herpes simplex virus infection. skin biopsies showed unique features which included multiple small pigment granules inside and outside the histiocytes. In our opinion, these findings are consistent with acute arsenic poisoning, and constitute the first histological description of this entity in skin.
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ranking = 0.0036885995497322
keywords = herpes
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18/253. psoriasis guttate acuta triggered by varicella zoster virus infection.

    A 23-year-old man had small desquamative erythematous lesions, round or oval in shape, spread over his entire body, and diagnosed as psoriasis guttate acuta because of clinical and pathological findings. Three weeks before the lesions had started, he was diagnosed as having varicella by his family physician. The psoriatic lesions appeared at the same sites where previously lesions of varicella had appeared. Therefore, VZV infection was regarded as a trigger in this case. We speculate that genetic factors and the change of skin condition are basically involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis guttate. In addition, one more factor as a trigger is needed to cause the lesions of psoriasis. VZV infection might change the skin condition and induce subsequent immunological disregulation.
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ranking = 0.14484693305008
keywords = varicella zoster, varicella, zoster
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19/253. Acute encephalopathy with bilateral striatal necrosis: favourable response to corticosteroid therapy.

    A case of acute encephalopathy with selective bilateral symmetrical striatal lesions is reported. The patient was a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who became obtunded after a febrile illness and fell into a state of delirium with severe pain in the feet. He showed abnormal postures: hyperextension of the neck and upper limbs and extreme flexion of both lower limbs, and abnormal involuntary movements of the limbs: tremor, athetotic movement and right hemiballismus. Analysis of serum antibody titres suggested recent primary infection of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1). Cranial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated areas of high-signal intensity involving the whole basal ganglia bilaterally. He showed rapid clinical improvement after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy; complete clinical recovery was noted 3 months after the onset. Serial MRI studies demonstrated a rapid reduction of the lesions, resulting in only slight T2-hyperintense areas in both caudate nuclei. The pathogenesis of the disorder remains unknown, though an autoimmune mechanism has been speculated. The clinical and laboratory findings in this case suggested a possible role of HSV-1 in the pathomechanism of the disorder and a beneficial effect of early corticosteroid therapy.
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ranking = 0.0036885995497322
keywords = herpes
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20/253. Acute encephalopathy associated with vigabatrin in a six-month-old girl.

    PURPOSE: vigabatrin (VGB) is a new-generation anticonvulsant used in the treatment of partial seizures and West syndrome. Side effects of VGB treatment in adults and children are well described. Acute encephalopathy with VGB has recently been reported in eight adults. They developed stupor, confusion, and electroencephalographic abnormalities after starting VGB. Does the acute encephalopathy with VGB also occur in childhood? methods: We describe a 6-month-old girl with infantile alexander disease with hydrocephalus who developed similar clinical symptoms with apathia, somnolence, and sopor, as well as slowing of the background activity in EEG, 3 days after starting VGB. After exclusion of shunt dysfunction, encephalitis, metabolic dysfunction, and renal failure, VGB was discontinued. RESULTS: During the next 2 days, symptoms subsided, and after 10 days, EEG background activity returned to the one before starting VGB. CONCLUSIONS: Acute encephalopathy associated with VGB in children seems to be very rare, but should not be ignored.
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ranking = 0.16272561598716
keywords = encephalitis
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