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1/8. Serologic examinations in acute appendicitis.

    Authors studied the formation of endotoxic antibody level in healthy adults and in patients with appendicitis with a technique (indirect haemagglutination) not used till now. They found the antibody level against endotoxin to be increased in 91% of their patients in the postoperative period. Decrease in the antibody level against endotoxin was observed in two patients with gangrenous appendicitis and two patients with perforated appendicitis. Summarizing their results, authors consider mixed (aerobic, anaerobic) infection to be of decisive importance in the development of acute appendicitis, contributing to the weakened immune response of the host.
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2/8. The application of immobilized polymyxin b fiber in the treatment of septic shock associated with severe acute pancreatitis: report of two cases.

    The elimination of endotoxin by direct hemoperfusion over immobilized polymyxin b fiber (PMX-F) was carried out in two patients who developed septic shock associated with severe acute pancreatitis. Parameters such as blood pressure, body temperature, and plasma endotoxin level improved after PMX-F treatment, and the infected lesions were successfully and safely removed by surgery. Although an aggressive operative strategy of debridement with ultimate closure over drains is generally associated with low mortality in patients with this devastating disease, we often hesitate to perform this operation due to the poor condition of the patient in the acute period, with multiple organ failure and/or septic shock status, and also because of the difficulty in diagnosing the pancreatic infection. In this situation, endotoxin elimination using PMX-F is a useful tool for treating secondary pancreatic infections to help the patient recover in preparation for surgery, or for treating perioperative endotoxemia.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = endotoxin
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3/8. Non-Q wave acute myocardial infarction in acute meningococcemia in a 10-year-old girl.

    INTRODUCTION: Children with acute meningococcemia may have impaired myocardial function resulting in low cardiac output despite normal intravascular volume. Severe meningococcal infection has been associated with acute interstitial myocarditis, endocarditis, and pericarditis, but not with myocardial infarction. CASE: We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with positive family history for premature myocardial infarction who sustained an acute myocardial infarction temporally related to meningococcemia. DISCUSSION: This is the first pediatric case of non-Q wave acute myocardial infarction associated with purpura fulminans in meningococcemia. Similarly, the association of high troponin i levels and meningococcemia has not been described previously. Although, the patient's genetic predisposition for myocardial infarction might have been a potential contributing factor, there was no angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease in this patient. Thereby, other factors related to shock, endotoxin, microthrombi of meningococcemia, and their treatment might have been also contributing. We propose possible mechanisms for this rare but serious complication of meningococcemia and review the literature.
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keywords = endotoxin
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4/8. Acute encephalopathy associated with nontyphoidal salmonellosis.

    The importance of an acute encephalopathy associated with nontyphoidal salmonellosis has recently been recognized, but the disease entity has been poorly established. In this study, we describe two encephalopathic patients associated with nontyphoidal salmonellosis. The patients exhibited a rapid evolution of coma after the onset of lethargy or seizure. fever and diarrhea due to salmonellosis preceded these events. Secondary factors inducing encephalopathies, such as severe dehydration, sepsis, meningitis, electrolyte or metabolic disturbances, acute renal failure, and multiple organ failure, were excluded in the differential diagnosis at the onset of encephalopathic features. These clinical findings and rapid development of encephalopathic features from localized intestinal infection without any significant abnormalities in a variety of blood tests may suggest a toxic etiology. However, endotoxin was not found in serum from both patients. From these results, we conclude that nontyphoidal salmonellosis can cause a toxic encephalopathy syndrome, like shigellosis or verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli infection.
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keywords = endotoxin
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5/8. polymyxin b-immobilized fiber hemoperfusion in a patient with active ulcerative colitis.

    A case involving a 31-year-old woman with active ulcerative colitis is described. She suffered symptoms of infraumbilical abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, and low-grade fever that did not improve with conventional treatment, including antidiarrheal drugs and antibiotics. Ulcerative colitis was diagnosed according to endoscopic and histologic findings. She was treated with prednisolone and sulfasalazine, and her symptoms disappeared after 1 month. sulfasalazine therapy was continued for 3 months, and the patient's condition remained stable for 4 years. Recently, she was admitted with abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, and melena. She was again treated with prednisolone and intravenous hyperalimentation, but her symptoms did not improve. colonoscopy showed multiple ulcers with bleeding and polyposis and severe edema in the colon. In addition, she had a high blood endotoxin concentration (38.0 pg/ml; normal < 9.8 pg/ml). She underwent polymyxin b-immobilized fiber (PMX-F) hemoperfusion therapy twice. After 2 weeks, her symptoms resolved completely, colonoscopy showed disappearance of the edema, revascularization of the mucosa, and improvement of the ulcers, and blood endotoxin concentration decreased to 5.0 pg/ml. These results suggest that PMX-F treatment may be beneficial for the management of ulcerative colitis with endotoxemia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = endotoxin
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6/8. Three-dimensional images of the temporal bone and experimental otitis media in Japanese monkeys.

    Since the middle ear structure of animals commonly used for experimental study is different from that of humans, we used the Japanese monkey (macaca fuscatus) as an animal model for otitis media with effusion (OME). The exact similarities and differences of the ear structure between humans and Japanese monkeys were studied by the use of computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction, in addition to light and electron microscopy. otitis media with effusion was repeatedly induced by direct intratympanic inoculation of one of the following: keyhole limpet hemocyanin; following systemic immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin, streptococcus pneumoniae; or endotoxin. The temporal bones were serially sliced with a diamond band saw, after which the histologic findings were examined by light and electron microscopy on the basis of macroscopic observations. Each substance induced OME equally, 2 to 3 days after inoculation. Inflammatory reaction of the middle ear mucosa extended to all of the air cells; subsequently, the inflamed mucosa returned to normal in each case along with normalization of both the tympanometric and otoscopic findings. No remarkable architectural change remained, even after OME was induced repeatedly. These findings are applicable to acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis. The development of chronic middle ear effusion was not observed in this study. The usefulness of the diamond band saw and computer-aided analysis for temporal bone histologic evaluations is emphasized.
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keywords = endotoxin
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7/8. Renal cortical necrosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    A patient with active systemic lupus erythematosus had acute and irreversible renal failure after an uncomplicated cholecystectomy, and renal biopsy established the diagnosis of acute cortical necrosis. patients with lupus have a diathesis for intravascular coagulation, and the interactive effects of immune complex or endotoxin-induced vascular injury, change in platelet dynamics, impairment of fibrinolysis, alterations in the mononuclear phagocytic system, and/or concomitant use of corticosteroids may have singularly or in combination been important in generating this rare renal complication of systemic lupus erythematosus in our patient.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = endotoxin
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8/8. Use of immobilized histidine in assay for endotoxin in patients with liver disease.

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test has the disadvantage of being influenced by various inhibitors and activators. We have developed a method for the LAL reaction that involves the specific adsorption and isolation of endotoxin using a membrane filter unit and immobilized histidine; in this present study we used the method to measure endotoxin in the plasma of patients with acute or chronic liver disease. The adsorbed endotoxins are separated from LAL-inhibitors or -activators by the membrane filter unit, and their activity is directly assayed with the LAL reagent in a filter cup without any inhibition or activation. The study population consisted of 23 subjects, 3 with fulminant hepatitis and 20 with cirrhosis (9 with esophageal varices and 11 without). All 3 (100%) of the samples of plasma from patients with fulminant hepatitis were positive for endotoxin, as were the samples of 7 (78%) of the 9 patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices, and 2 (18%) of the 11 patients with cirrhosis but without such varices. The results suggested that this method appears to be useful for assaying the concentration of endotoxin in patients with fulminant hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver.
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ranking = 4.5
keywords = endotoxin
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