Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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11/197. Wegener's granulomatosis triggered by infection?

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic disease of unknown origin, although recent studies suggest that auto-immune mechanisms and infection play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Wegener is characterized by a necrotizing vasculitis involving the lungs (pulmonary infiltrates), the upper airways and the kidneys (rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis). We present a case of a male patient admitted because of progressive deterioration of the general condition with weight loss, a unilateral neck mass, unilateral purulent rhinorrea and fever. CT-scan evaluation demonstrated a unilateral expanding mass in the sing-nasal cavity, obliterating the ethmoid complex. MRI revealed signs of intracranial inflammatory reaction and onset of absedation. A malignancy was suspected but a diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis was established based on histologic criteria (nasal biopsy) and a positive titer for anti-cytoplasmic antibodies (cANCA). During follow-up, nasal carriage of Staphyloccocus Aureus could be documented. An overview of Wegener's granulomatosis will be provided with emphasis on the potential role of acute infections as a trigger for Wegener's granulomatosis and the head and neck manifestations.
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12/197. Successful steroid therapy for cefdinir-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive renal failure.

    A 58-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of renal dysfunction that continued to progress even after withdrawal of cefdinir, the presumed cause of acute renal failure. Renal histologic findings included interstitial fibrosis accompanied by moderate lymphocytic infiltration, and tubular atrophy with reduced numbers of epithelial cells. mesangial cells and glomerular basement membranes were nearly normal. Scintigraphy with 67gallium disclosed diffuse abnormal accumulation in both kidneys. A lymphocyte stimulation test with cefdinir was positive. The patient was diagnosed with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by cefdinir. serum creatinine concentrations continued to rise after withdrawal of the drug, but steroid therapy was effective in normalizing renal function.
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13/197. Acute hypercalcemia of the heart ("bony heart").

    Cardiac abnormalities as a sign of hyperparathyroidism are common. A spectacular pitfall of peracute extended myocardiac hypercalcemia is reported. The history of a 30-year-old woman included symptoms such as insufficiency of the kidneys since childhood, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and hemodialysis for approximately 4 years. After kidney transplantation, the patient died from progressive heart failure. Three days before she died, CT showed a nearly white heart, and myocardial scintigraphy revealed a total infarction. The autopsy revealed a heart of normal size but with a weight of 590 g and with nearly bony texture. The histologic examination showed extended calcifications of the entire myocardium, thus explaining these findings. Laboratory photographs and electron microscopic images will be demonstrated. The metabolic pathogenesis of tertiary hyperparathyroidism and calciphylaxis is discussed. "Malignant" progression after kidney transplantation is stressed.
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14/197. ranitidine-induced acute interstitial nephritis in a cadaveric renal allograft.

    ranitidine frequently is used for preventing peptic ulceration after renal transplantation. This drug occasionally has been associated with acute interstitial nephritis in native kidneys. There are no similar reports with renal transplantation. We report a case of ranitidine-induced acute interstitial nephritis in a recipient of a cadaveric renal allograft presenting with acute allograft dysfunction within 48 hours of exposure to the drug. The biopsy specimen showed pathognomonic features, including eosinophilic infiltration of the interstitial compartment. Allograft function improved rapidly and returned to baseline after stopping the drug.
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15/197. recurrence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.

    recurrence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is a rare phenomenon. We present an 8-year-old boy with a second episode of APSGN 12 months following a complete clinical recovery from his initial attack. Renal histology, obtained from renal biopsies of the patient during the second attack, showed diffuse endocapillary proliferation, granular deposition of C3, IgG, IgA, and fibrinogen along capillary walls, and subepithelial electron-dense deposits. A new streptococcal cytoplasmic antigen (nephritis-associated plasmin receptor protein, NAP1r), which was recently identified as the pathogenic antigen in APSGN, was detected in the glomeruli of an early kidney biopsy specimen from the patient during the second attack of APSGN, using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-NAP1r. However, antibodies against NAP1r, examined by Western blotting, were not present in sera from the patient. These results suggest that recurrence of APSGN in some patients may be caused by an absence of a natural immune response to NAP1r.
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16/197. Acute abdominal symptoms in malignant hypertension: clinical presentation in five cases.

    Malignant hypertension causes anatomical and functional damage in several target organs, in particular brain, retina, heart and kidneys. Although vascular lesions in the gastroenteric tract are known to occur in several instances, their clinical relevance is unknown. In this study five cases of malignant hypertension, presenting with acute abdominal symptoms, are reported. A history of essential arterial hypertension was present in three patients; while one patient had a previous diagnosis of renovascular hypertension and one patient had renoparenchymal hypertension. However, in all cases the antihypertensive treatment was discontinued and inadequate before the accelerated malignant phase. The acute abdominal symptoms at presentation were due to intestinal infarction in 3 patients and acute pancreatitis in 2 patients. One patient with intestinal infarction died of postoperative cardiogenic shock. Our data are in agreement with previous reports describing the possible intra-abdominal complications of malignant hypertension. The therapeutic approach in such conditions should always consider an effective antihypertensive treatment in conjunction with surgical options.
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17/197. Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and colitis: an unusual presentation of Wegener's granulomatosis.

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare necrotizing vasculitis usually affecting the respiratory tract and kidneys. The aetiology is unknown and it usually occurs in patients over the age of 40. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in Wegener's granulomatosis is relatively rare and usually occurs long after the onset of initial symptoms. Acute colitis as a presenting feature of Wegener's granulomatosis is very rare with only a few reports in the literature. We describe a young woman who presented initially to hospital with gastrointestinal features and then developed a severe colitis and severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage. This preceded the development of respiratory tract features with severe pulmonary haemorrhage, haemoptysis and the development of rapidly progressive renal failure and nasal septal perforation. Following treatment with intravenous steroids and cyclophosphamide, gastrointestinal symptoms and signs improved dramatically, as did her pulmonary disease. She still remains dialysis dependent, due to end-stage renal disease secondary to glomerulonephritis.
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18/197. Retroperitoneal suppurative lymphadenitis complicating staphylococcus aureus acute bacterial endocarditis.

    Acute bacterial endocarditis is commonly caused by staphylococcus aureus. Acute bacterial endocarditis due to S. aureus is often complicated by metastatic infection to distant organs, i.e. the central nervous system, the heart, lungs, kidneys and joints. However, metastatic lymph node involvement has not been reported. This is a case report of S. aureus acute bacterial endocarditis complicated by metastatic suppurative lymphadenitis of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. We believe this is the first reported case of suppurative lymphadenitis of the mesenteric lymph nodes secondary to S. aureus acute bacterial endocarditis.
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19/197. A case of persistent acute allograft glomerulopathy with long-standing stable renal function.

    Acute allograft glomerulopathy (AAG) characterized by hypercellularity, enlargement of endothelial cells, infiltration of glomeruli by mononuclear cells and webs of PAS-positive material has been reported as an unusual but distinct form of acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. We present a case of persistent AAG proven by serial biopsies. The patient was 53 years old when she received kidney transplantation from her mother. The immunosuppressants were methylprednisolone, azathioprine and FK506. She developed several acute rejections and received antirejection therapy. The patient transferred to our hospital 15 months after transplantation. serum creatinine was 2.11 mg/dL. The level of serum creatinine was gradually elevated from 2.11 mg/dL to 3.09 mg/dL. Graft biopsy, performed 16.5 months after transplantation, represented prominent intraglomerular infiltration of mononuclear cells, segmental thickening of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) with double contour, grade 1 tubulitis, marked accumulation of mononuclear cells in peritubular capillaries and margination of mononuclear cells in a small artery. It was diagnosed as acute allograft glomerulopathy (AAG). Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy, discontinuation of FK506 and administration of cyclosporin (CYA) resulted in decrease of serum creatinine. To evaluate histological evolution of AAG we performed two subsequent biopsies over 3 yr. Severe glomerulitis persisted as a prominent feature 8 months later and still existed 53.4 months after transplantation with decreased severity. The extent of GBM reduplication also decreased, but the percentage of glomerular sclerosis increased gradually. Multi-layering of basement membrane of peritubular capillary and interstitial fibrosis also increased. The prominence of infiltration of mononuclear cells in peritubular capillary was unchanged. At the last follow-up, i.e. 71 months after transplantation, her serum creatinine was 1.34 mg/dL. Neither proteinuria nor haematuria was observed. We consider that our immunosuppressive treatment has been successful so far, because the patient is still maintaining stable graft function since the transplantation over 6 yr ago. It is thus suggested that AAG per se probably has no influence on acute aggravation of graft function, but AAG and capillaritis in peritubular capillaries may cause an evolution of chronic allograft nephropathy, resulting in a slowly progressive deterioration of graft function.
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20/197. Rapid loss of renal parenchyma after acute obstruction.

    urinary tract obstruction (UTO) is a frequent cause of renal failure in the pediatric population. We report a patient with type I/I cystinuria, followed prospectively from birth with yearly ultrasonography, who developed acute UTO due to a cystine stone at 10 years of age. In animal models of UTO, acute obstruction produces rapid loss of renal parenchyma secondary to apoptosis of tubular cells. Since we had prospectively obtained serial ultrasonographic measurements of renal growth, we were able to document sudden decrease in kidney size and function following UTO, suggesting that programmed cell death may similarly have caused the rapid irreversible loss of renal parenchyma in our patient. Despite surgical relief of the obstruction, kidney size decreased for at least 3-4 months. We speculate that anti-apoptotic drugs might be considered as a therapeutic strategy to protect ongoing renal parenchyma loss in UTO.
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