Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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1/212. central nervous system T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PURPOSE: central nervous system (CNS)-T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) developing during the course of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is reported. patients AND methods: CAEBV was diagnosed in a 14-month-old boy with fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and abnormal high titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies. At 8 years of age, he had a splenectomy because of progressive disease. RESULTS: After 27 months of clinical remission, muscle weakness and paresthesia developed. magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed spotty T2 prolongation in left parietal, bilateral frontal, and temporal white matter with meningeal enhancement. brain biopsy revealed the cerebral infiltration of CD3 , CD4 , CD8-, CD45RO , CD56-, and EBV-encoded RNA 1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The CNS involvement of EBV-associated T-LPD is a rare but serious complication in CAEBV without known underlying immunodeficiency.
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keywords = nervous system
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2/212. Acute pulmonary edema associated with placement of waist-high, custom-fit compression stockings.

    Compression stockings are a safe, noninvasive treatment for patients with symptomatic orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In this report, we describe a 75-year-old man who had development of pulmonary edema approximately 45 minutes after placement of compression stockings on the first postoperative day following a carotid endarterectomy. No sudden changes were noted on an electrocardiogram or echocardiogram or in the cardiac isoenzymes associated with the pulmonary edema. The patient had a history of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus-induced autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and recent surgery near the carotid baroreceptor. All these factors may have limited his ability to compensate for a rapid increase in central blood volume. The temporal relationship of the patient's respiratory distress to the placement of the compression stockings, in the absence of laboratory findings of primary cardiac dysfunction, make stocking-related fluid shift the likely precipitating event in the formation of acute pulmonary edema. This case suggests that compression stockings should be used with caution in patients with limited cardiac reserve.
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keywords = nervous system
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3/212. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a welder exposed to metal fumes.

    A 43-year-old man began having malaise, chills, and fever 12 hours after cutting a galvanized steel grating with an acetylene torch at work. Over the next 72 hours, his symptoms persisted and became worse with progressive shortness of breath. He was admitted to the hospital and begun on antibiotics and steroids. The next day his condition had deteriorated to the point that he had to be intubated. Chest x-ray film and computed tomography showed patchy and interstitial infiltration bilaterally, consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Open lung biopsy showed focal mild interstitial pneumonia. Multiple laboratory studies were negative for an infectious or an immune process. The patient remained on mechanical ventilation for 10 days and was discharged from the hospital 2 days after extubation. He continued to improve, with minimal symptoms and a return to normal activity levels several months after the incident with no continued treatment. Re-creation of his exposure was done under controlled circumstances, with air sampling revealing elevated air levels for cadmium and zinc and borderline levels of arsenic, manganese, lead, and iron.
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ranking = 0.022115583843824
keywords = metal
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4/212. Acute hypernatremia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in parkinson disease.

    neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a clinical syndrome characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, and mutism. Some patients with neuroleptic syndrome may have elevated creatine phosphokinase values and abnormal liver aminotransferase values. precipitating factors are important clues for prompt diagnosis. Typical precipitating factors include antipsychotic agents and major tranquilizers. In parkinson disease, drug withdrawal, menstruation, and hyponatremia are precipitating factors. We report a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with parkinson disease and hypernatremia. In addition, we hypothesized that sudden change of sodium concentrations in the central nervous system could trigger neuroleptic malignant syndrome in patients with parkinson disease. According to our experience, neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a clinical diagnosis and prompt diagnosis avoids unnecessary, expensive work-ups.
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keywords = nervous system
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5/212. Acute dilated cardiomyopathy and central nervous system toxicity following propranolol intoxication.

    OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a 16-year-old boy who developed central nervous system (CNS) depression and acute dilated cardiomyopathy following ingestion of 3200 mg of propranolol in a suicide attempt. Early echocardiographic findings were the only sign of cardiac toxicity. DESIGN: A case report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. RESULTS: This child developed significant acute dilated cardiomyopathy and severe CNS depression 2 hours after ingesting 3200 mg of propranolol. The child was treated with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and mechanical ventilation. Following the echocardiographic findings, treatment with isoprenaline hydrochloride and glucagon were given intravenously. Echocardiographic examination 12 hours following treatment showed normal left ventricular size and function. No change in pulse rate or blood pressure was reported on admission and during his hospitalization. DISCUSSION: In the early stages of propranolol and other lipophilic beta-blocker intoxication, severe CNS depression can develop in the absence of clinical signs of cardiac toxicity. Early echocardiographic evaluation is important and may prevent delay in diagnosis and treatment of cardiac toxicity.
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keywords = nervous system
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6/212. Acute mercury vapour poisoning in a shipyard worker--a case report.

    Acute mercury vapour poisoning is a serious, potentially fatal but fortunately rarely encountered problem. It is most commonly due to industrial accidents. The vapour is a direct respiratory tract irritant as well as a cell poison, exerting its greatest effects in the lungs, nervous system, kidneys and liver. We present a case of mercury vapour poisoning in a shipyard workers presenting as an acute chemical pneumonitis, which resolved with aggressive supportive therapy. Further investigations later revealed transient mild neuropsychiatric symptoms, and residual peripheral neuropathy. No chelation therapy was instituted. The detailed investigative work that led to the discovery of the source of mercury is also presented. This case alerts us to the potential hazard to shipyard workers who may work in ships previously carrying oil contaminated with mercury. There have been no previous reports of mercury poisoning in shipyard workers. A high index of suspicion leading to early diagnosis and institution of appropriate supportive measures in suspected cases can be life-saving.
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keywords = nervous system
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7/212. Acute spinal cord infarction: vascular steal in arteriovenous malformation.

    central nervous system arteriovenous malformations typically present with chronic neurologic impairment. An 8-year-old boy presented with acute spinal cord infarction associated with a spinal arteriovenous malformation. Vascular steal phenomenon suggested by spinal angiography happens to underly the pathogenic mechanism.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = nervous system
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8/212. Acute encephalopathy and intractable seizures in a 10-year-old boy.

    We report a 10-year-old child with Robinow's syndrome who had a 2-week history of headaches and dizziness. On the day of admission, he developed a focal onset seizure with rapid secondary generalization. The seizures were intractable despite adequate doses of benzodiazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital, requiring a pentobarbital drip. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring showed persistence of the epileptiform discharges for 13 days. cerebrospinal fluid and brain biopsy studies were unrevealing. Mycoplasma pneumonia titers showed elevation of both immunoglobulins G and M that doubled during the tenth hospital day. High-dose methylprednisolone was begun, and within 12 hours of initiation the patient sat up and began to follow commands appropriately. The overall EEG background markedly improved. central nervous system mycoplasma pneumoniae infection should be suspected in patients with an encephalopathy of unclear etiology.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = nervous system
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9/212. MRI-induced retrocalcaneal bursitis.

    This case report describes a patient with acute retrocalcaneal bursitis, which developed after MRI examination of the ankle. The sagittal T2*-weighted gradient echo sequence revealed an extensive susceptibility artifact in the area surrounding the achilles tendon near its insertion at the os calcis. This artifact was caused by postsurgical metallic particles. We postulate that these particles were mechanically stimulated by the magnetic field and induced the inflammatory response.
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ranking = 0.0055288959609561
keywords = metal
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10/212. Computed tomography of intracerebral leukemic masses.

    Five patients with differing types of leukemia had clinical symptoms of a localized intracerebral leukemic mass. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a mass of equal or increased density relative to normal brain; a zone of surrounding edema was variable. In each case, the mass showed evidence of relatively uniform contrast enhancement. CT appearance of leukemic masses is consistent and quite different from the findings in other central nervous system complications of leukemia and its aggressive treatment.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = nervous system
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