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1/227. Tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with minimal self reexposure to rifampin.

    We report the case of a 27-year-old Asian man who self-medicated with two capsules of rifampin 1 year after completing a continuous course of chemotherapy for tuberculosis that included that drug. He developed flank pain and edema and presented with uremia requiring dialysis; despite this, he had a serum potassium of only 3.5 mEq/L. Renal biopsy showed interstitial infiltrate with inflammation of the tubules. Renal function began to improve after a 3-week course of prednisone. This case is remarkable for the severity of the renal failure despite such a minimal self-exposure.
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2/227. Acute and reversible parkinsonism due to organophosphate pesticide intoxication: five cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe five patients who developed acute and reversible parkinsonism following organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure, and to consider whether this syndrome represents a rare sequela of such exposure in genetically susceptible individuals. BACKGROUND: Several toxins are known to produce parkinsonism following acute exposure. Although case-control studies have implicated OP pesticides in the etiology of PD, acute parkinsonism following brief pesticide exposure has never been reported. methods: The authors describe the clinical syndrome affecting five patients who presented with recent OP exposure and symptoms of an acute akinetic-rigid syndrome. RESULTS: All patients developed parkinsonism that resembled PD clinically except for poor response to levodopa. Three genetically related patients were exposed to pesticides in a common environment before onset of parkinsonism; other family members remained unaffected. Other secondary causes of parkinsonism were excluded. Four patients recovered completely without treatment, and one patient was lost to follow-up. One patient experienced repeated episodes of parkinsonism with inadvertent reexposure to a pesticide-contaminated environment. CONCLUSION: The clinical course of these five patients suggests their syndrome represents a heretofore undescribed toxic effect of OP pesticides. Our observations strengthen epidemiologic studies implicating OP pesticides in the etiology of PD. A genetic susceptibility to OP pesticide-induced parkinsonism may account for three family members developing this syndrome.
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3/227. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a welder exposed to metal fumes.

    A 43-year-old man began having malaise, chills, and fever 12 hours after cutting a galvanized steel grating with an acetylene torch at work. Over the next 72 hours, his symptoms persisted and became worse with progressive shortness of breath. He was admitted to the hospital and begun on antibiotics and steroids. The next day his condition had deteriorated to the point that he had to be intubated. Chest x-ray film and computed tomography showed patchy and interstitial infiltration bilaterally, consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Open lung biopsy showed focal mild interstitial pneumonia. Multiple laboratory studies were negative for an infectious or an immune process. The patient remained on mechanical ventilation for 10 days and was discharged from the hospital 2 days after extubation. He continued to improve, with minimal symptoms and a return to normal activity levels several months after the incident with no continued treatment. Re-creation of his exposure was done under controlled circumstances, with air sampling revealing elevated air levels for cadmium and zinc and borderline levels of arsenic, manganese, lead, and iron.
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4/227. Neurogenic pulmonary oedema after generalized epileptic seizure.

    The diagnosis 'tonic clonic seizure' is frequently established by emergency physicians on scene. In patients with epilepsy mortality due to accidents, asphyxia, cardiac arrhythmias or postictal neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPO) is twice as high as in the general population. We report a case of acute pulmonary oedema after a tonic clonic seizure. Following this event, the patient developed respiratory insufficiency and evidence of pulmonary oedema not associated with the classic aetiologies of congestive heart failure, aspiration or toxic exposure. The patient survived the incident after aggressive prehospital treatment, long-term intensive care and subsequent rehabilitation. A systematic case analysis and an introduction to the pathophysiology of NPO are presented. We recommend a positive approach to the management of NPO consisting primarily of interventions to stabilize vital functions, decrease intracranial pressure and normalize vegetative dysregulation. Emergency physicians need to consider the possibility of NPO in all cases of pulmonary oedema of unknown origin.
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5/227. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis requiring dialysis associated with intermittent rifampicin use: case report.

    Rifampicin is one of the most effective antibiotics used for the treatment of tuberculosis and severe staphylococcal infections. Intermittent administration of high doses of rifampicin has been associated with frequent adverse reactions, including hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, sometimes resulting in acute renal failure. We describe a case of rifampicin-associated acute renal failure, with biopsy findings of tubulointerstitial nephritis; inflammatory cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry, which showed immunoreactivity for CD3 and CD5 (T lymphocytes) and for CD68 (macrophages). The patient presented with a very rapid systemic reaction to the offending drug and rapid deterioration of renal function, which required dialysis treatment. The response to rifampicin discontinuation was excellent: no further therapy was required, as renal function began to improve within several days and returned to normal values (serum creatinine 1.17 mg/dl) seven months after the onset of symptoms. When prescribing rifampicin the physician should investigate previous use of the drug, because re-exposure is a critical factor in predicting the possibility of drug-induced acute renal failure.
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6/227. Translocation (12;17)(q13;q23) in de novo acute myeloid leukemia with trilineage myelodysplasia.

    12q13 abnormalities have been reported to be associated with a variety of benign and malignant solid tumors. Recently, they have been shown to be a nonrandom karyotypic change in acute myeloid leukemia. We report a case of de novo acute myeloid leukemia with trilineage myelodysplasia showing t(12;17)(q13;q23) as the sole chromosomal abnormality. A review of the literature indicates that 12q13 translocation in acute myeloid leukemia is often associated with concomitant dysmyelopoietic changes. There is also evidence to suggest that 12q13 translocation occurs more frequently in acute myeloid leukemia with a prior history of mutagenic exposure or karyotypic indicators of secondary leukemia.
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7/227. Acute quadriplegic myopathy unrelated to steroids or paralyzing agents: quantitative EMG studies.

    BACKGROUND: Quadriplegic myopathy (QM) and its variants generally are described in critically ill patients who are exposed to steroids and nondepolarizing muscle blocking agents (NDMBAs). methods: A patient with sepsis who was not exposed to steroids or an NDMBA infusion developed QM and was studied using serial quantitative electromyography. RESULTS: Clinical and electrophysiological studies identified evidence of a severe myopathy and muscle biopsy showed necrosis, calcifications and selective loss of myosin filaments in non-necrotic fibers. Her clinical recovery paralleled rises in motor unit action potential (MUAP) amplitudes studied by serial automatic decomposition electromyography (ADEMG). CONCLUSIONS: QM can develop with sepsis and without significant exposure to steroids and NDMBAs. ADEMG can be a useful tool in electrophysiological evaluation of critically ill patients with weakness.
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8/227. Bat-associated histoplasmosis in returning travelers: case presentation and description of a cluster.

    histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus with the mycelial form producing spores that are readily airborne and able to reach small bronchi and alveoli. Isolation of the mycelial form of H. capsulatum in nature shows a striking correlation with moist, acidic soils, frequently contaminated with bird or bat excreta. Bats, but not birds, may be infected by H. capsulatum and may excrete the fungus in their feces. skin test surveys show that the infectious agent is present worldwide in the areas between 45 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator. Clusters of cases may occur because of the disturbance of soil contaminated with H. capsulatum, or by visiting bat caves. Cave-associated histoplasmosis has been reported from the americas, africa, oceania, and africa. Recently, cave-associated histoplasmosis has been reported in travelers returning from costa rica and peru. We report a cluster of cave-associated acute histoplasmosis that occurred in college students returning from ecuador. Advice regarding histoplasmosis prevention should be given to travelers planning to visit bat-infested caves, and histoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness in returning travelers with a history of epidemiologic or geographic exposure.
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9/227. Relapsing acute pancreatitis induced by re-exposure to the cholesterol lowering agent bezafibrate.

    We report a 75-yr-old patient, who presented three times with acute pancreatitis, accompanied by high temperature, shock, and multiorgan involvement and associated each time with exposure to the cholesterol lowering agent bezafibrate. Extensive workup excluded other possible causes for recurrent pancreatitis in this patient, further supporting bezafibrate as the cause of the patient's acute illness. Based on the short time elapsing between rechallenge and development of manifestations and the specific features of the attacks, we proposed hypersensitivity to bezafibrate as the underlying mechanism. The present report includes, for the first time, bezafibrate among definite causes of acute pancreatitis.
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10/227. Acute pulmonary haemorrhage in an infant during induction of general anaesthesia.

    Pulmonary haemorrhage is a rare, life-threatening complication of anaesthesia. This report describes the anaesthetic management of an infant who developed laryngospasm and pulmonary haemorrhage during general anaesthesia. The infant was subsequently found to have prior exposure to a fungus, stachybotrys chartarum, which produces mycotoxins that may have produced capillary fragility in the infant's rapidly growing lungs.
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