Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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1/790. Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

    PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. methods: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.
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2/790. Acute respiratory alkalosis associated with low minute ventilation in a patient with severe hypothyroidism.

    PURPOSE: patients with severe hypothyroidism present unique challenges to anesthesiologists and demonstrate much increased perioperative risks. overall, they display increased sensitivity to anesthetics, higher incidence of perioperative cardiovascular morbidity, increased risks for postoperative ventilatory failure and other physiological derangements. The previously described physiological basis for the increased incidence of postoperative ventilatory failure in hypothyroid patients includes decreased central and peripheral ventilatory responses to hypercarbia and hypoxia, muscle weakness, depressed central respiratory drive, and resultant alveolar hypoventilation. These ventilatory failures are associated most frequently with severe hypoxia and carbon dioxide (CO2) retention. The purpose of this clinical report is to discuss an interesting and unique anesthetic presentation of a patient with severe hypothyroidism. CLINICAL FEATURES: We describe an unique presentation of ventilatory failure in a 58 yr old man with severe hypothyroidism. He had exceedingly low perioperative respiratory rate (3-4 bpm) and minute ventilation volume, and at the same time developed primary acute respiratory alkalosis and associated hypocarbia (P(ET)CO2 approximately 320-22 mmHg). CONCLUSION: Our patient's ventilatory failure was based on unacceptably low minute ventilation and respiratory rate that was unable to sustain adequate oxygenation. His profoundly lowered basal metabolic rate and decreased CO2 production, resulting probably from severe hypothyroidism, may have resulted in development of acute respiratory alkalosis in spite of concurrently diminished minute ventilation.
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3/790. Successful treatment of traumatic acute posterior fossa subdural hematoma: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa after a closed-head injury, excluding those in newborns, is a very rare clinical event. Generally, the outcome is poor and the overall mortality rate is high. methods: Acute posttraumatic subdural hematomas of the posterior fossa associated with acute hydrocephalus in two patients were removed by standard suboccipital approach. Preoperatively, one patient was in a coma and the Glasgow coma Score was 9 in another. CT scans showed obliterated mesencephalic cisterns in both cases. In the former there was a complex posterior fossa lesion, i.e., combined subdural and intracerebellar hematoma. The surgical decompression was completed 3 and 11 hours after injury, respectively. Intraoperative tapping of the lateral ventricle through a burr hole in the occipital area was performed in the latter case. RESULTS: Both patients survived; one made a good recovery, (i.e., glasgow outcome scale 4 in a patient who was comatose on admission), the other did not do as well (GOS 3). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience justifies the policy of mandatory early operation in cases of traumatic acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with poor neurologic condition, even in patients of advanced age. In patients with obliterated mesencephalic cisterns and/or complex posterior fossa lesions the same approach must be followed. These clinical and CT features are not necessarily predictors of a poor outcome.
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4/790. Abrupt exacerbation of acute subdural hematoma mimicking benign acute epidural hematoma on computed tomography--case report.

    A 75-year-old male was hit by a car, when riding a bicycle. The diagnosis of acute epidural hematoma was made based on computed tomography (CT) findings of lentiform hematoma in the left temporal region. On admission he had only moderate occipitalgia and amnesia of the accident, so conservative therapy was administered. Thirty-three hours later, he suddenly developed severe headache, vomiting, and anisocoria just after a positional change. CT revealed typical acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), which was confirmed by emergent decompressive craniectomy. He was vegetative postoperatively and died of pneumonia one month later. Emergent surgical exploration is recommended for this type of ASDH even if the symptoms are mild due to aged atrophic brain.
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keywords = operative
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5/790. Postoperative pulmonary edema.

    BACKGROUND: Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may be caused by upper airway obstruction due to laryngospasm after general anesthesia. This syndrome of "negative pressure pulmonary edema" is apparently well known among anesthesiologists but not by other medical specialists. methods: We reviewed the cases of seven patients who had acute pulmonary edema postoperatively. RESULTS: There was no evidence of fluid overload or occult cardiac disease, but upper airway obstruction was the most common etiology. Each patient responded quickly to therapy without complications. CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven patients with noncardiogenic postoperative pulmonary edema, at least three cases were associated with documented laryngospasm causing upper airway obstruction. This phenomenon has been reported infrequently in the medical literature and may be underdiagnosed. Immediate recognition and treatment of this syndrome are important. The prognosis for complete recovery is excellent.
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6/790. Serologic examinations in acute appendicitis.

    Authors studied the formation of endotoxic antibody level in healthy adults and in patients with appendicitis with a technique (indirect haemagglutination) not used till now. They found the antibody level against endotoxin to be increased in 91% of their patients in the postoperative period. Decrease in the antibody level against endotoxin was observed in two patients with gangrenous appendicitis and two patients with perforated appendicitis. Summarizing their results, authors consider mixed (aerobic, anaerobic) infection to be of decisive importance in the development of acute appendicitis, contributing to the weakened immune response of the host.
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7/790. Acute upper limb ischemia: a complication of coronary artery bypass grafting.

    We present the case of a patient with acute upper limb ischemia after radial artery harvest for coronary artery bypass grafting. This occurred despite adequate preoperative and intraoperative assessment with the Allen test, hand-held Doppler and radial artery backbleeding. A successful outcome was achieved by performing brachioradial bypass grafting using reversed cephalic vein.
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8/790. myasthenia gravis presenting with dysphagia and postoperative ventilatory failure.

    We report a case of myasthenia gravis presenting to the department of otolaryngology with acute dysphagia on two separate occasions over a one-year period. diagnosis of myasthenia gravis was made when the patient developed ventilatory failure after his second general anaesthetic for rigid oesophagoscopy. Our patient required emergency transfer to the intensive therapy unit for ventilation. He improved after treatment with corticosteroids, anticholinesterase and immunosuppressive medications. Our case was unusual in that cricopharyngeal spasm causing dysphagia and significant aspiration was demonstrated by a barium swallow and this was completely resolved after treatment of the myasthenia gravis.
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9/790. Pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism under percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.

    Portable percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) with heparin-coated circuits and a biopump was employed in a patient who had a massive pulmonary embolism with circulatory collapse after stripping of varicosities of the leg. Emergency pulmonary embolectomy was successfully performed. The main pulmonary incision was facilitated by cross-clamping of the main pulmonary arterial root. The bypass circuit was kept closed, and used with the normothermic beating heart without converting to conventional total cardiopulmonary bypass. blood flow from the lung was removed by pump suction, stored in the reservoir, and intermittently returned to the venous circulation. heparin was added to the circuits to keep the activated clotting time greater than 300 sec. In massive pulmonary embolism, PCPS is useful for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative support.
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keywords = operative
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10/790. pancreatitis caused by duodenal duplication.

    The authors present the investigations and surgical treatment of two cases of duodenal cystic duplication. abdominal pain and gastroesophageal reflux were the most important symptoms and signs associated with an history of recurrent acute pancreatitis. Computed tomography scan, ultrasound examination, and cholangiography confirmed preoperatively the diagnosis, and a transduodenal surgical approach was carried out in both children. A simple marsupialization of the cyst was performed in the former, and a sphincterotomy with papillosphincteroplasty was associated in the latter. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopy, and both the children are asymptomatic after a 14 and 18 months of follow-up. This report focuses on the importance of the cholangiopancreatography for every child presenting with recurrent, unexplained bouts of acute pancreatitis, and underlines the technical surgical aspects on the basis of the anatomic identification of the malformation.
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