Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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1/248. Successful treatment of traumatic acute posterior fossa subdural hematoma: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa after a closed-head injury, excluding those in newborns, is a very rare clinical event. Generally, the outcome is poor and the overall mortality rate is high. methods: Acute posttraumatic subdural hematomas of the posterior fossa associated with acute hydrocephalus in two patients were removed by standard suboccipital approach. Preoperatively, one patient was in a coma and the Glasgow coma Score was 9 in another. CT scans showed obliterated mesencephalic cisterns in both cases. In the former there was a complex posterior fossa lesion, i.e., combined subdural and intracerebellar hematoma. The surgical decompression was completed 3 and 11 hours after injury, respectively. Intraoperative tapping of the lateral ventricle through a burr hole in the occipital area was performed in the latter case. RESULTS: Both patients survived; one made a good recovery, (i.e., glasgow outcome scale 4 in a patient who was comatose on admission), the other did not do as well (GOS 3). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience justifies the policy of mandatory early operation in cases of traumatic acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with poor neurologic condition, even in patients of advanced age. In patients with obliterated mesencephalic cisterns and/or complex posterior fossa lesions the same approach must be followed. These clinical and CT features are not necessarily predictors of a poor outcome.
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2/248. Abrupt exacerbation of acute subdural hematoma mimicking benign acute epidural hematoma on computed tomography--case report.

    A 75-year-old male was hit by a car, when riding a bicycle. The diagnosis of acute epidural hematoma was made based on computed tomography (CT) findings of lentiform hematoma in the left temporal region. On admission he had only moderate occipitalgia and amnesia of the accident, so conservative therapy was administered. Thirty-three hours later, he suddenly developed severe headache, vomiting, and anisocoria just after a positional change. CT revealed typical acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), which was confirmed by emergent decompressive craniectomy. He was vegetative postoperatively and died of pneumonia one month later. Emergent surgical exploration is recommended for this type of ASDH even if the symptoms are mild due to aged atrophic brain.
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3/248. lymphangioma circumscriptum of the tongue.

    A case is reported of severe transient macroglossia after biopsy from the tongue in a 13-year-old boy who has had intermittent macroglossia since the age of 1 year as a result of extensive lymphangioma circumscriptum of the tongue. The acute lesions appear to result from haemorrhage into the lymphatic spaces following rupture of blood vessels in connective tissue septa and possibly secondary infection.
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4/248. Subdural empyema and blindness due to cavernous sinus thrombosis in acute frontal sinusitis.

    In this era of antibiotics, the complications of acute sinusitis are much less frequently encountered. Although orbital complications are most common, intracranial complications carry a high rate of mortality and morbidity. We describe a case of acute frontal sinusitis with subdural empyema and blindness due to cavernous sinus thrombosis and carotid artery thrombosis with a discussion of treatment of these complications and the etiology of blindness in sinusitis.
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5/248. Acute hyperkalemia associated with intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid therapy.

    Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Amicar) is used to treat severe hemorrhage refractory to usual medical management. This antifibrinolytic drug has been associated with a number of renal complications. However, there are no descriptions of this medication causing hyperkalemia. This report describes the development of hyperkalemia in a patient with underlying chronic renal insufficiency treated with intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid. The patient, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, had no other obvious cause for the acute increase in serum potassium concentration. Based on data in animals and humans, the cationic amino acids lysine and arginine have been shown to enter muscle cells in exchange for potassium and lead to hyperkalemia through a shift of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid, a synthetic amino acid structurally similar to lysine and arginine, also has been noted to cause an acute increase in serum potassium in anephric dogs infused with this medication. It is probable that the mechanism underlying the increase in serum potassium with epsilon-aminocaproic acid is also based on the shift of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Hence, it appears that intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid can also cause hyperkalemia in humans.
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6/248. Acute compartment syndrome of the triceps and deltoid.

    Compartment syndrome is a condition in which the circulation and function of tissues within a closed space are compromised by increased pressure within that space. We report on the rare occurrence of compartment syndrome of the upper arm and deltoid in a professional power-lifter. This case stresses the importance of heightened awareness and expedient measures to prevent ischemic muscle necrosis and nerve injury.
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7/248. Radicular acute pain after epidural anaesthesia with the technique of loss of resistance with normal saline solution.

    Epidural anaesthesia using the loss of resistance to saline technique, without air, was successfully performed in a 65-year-old man scheduled for elective vascular surgery of the right leg. Epidural catheterisation was uneventful. Fifteen minutes after the initial dose of plain 0.5% bupivacaine, the patient experienced severe pain in his lower abdomen and legs which coincided with a supplementary injection of 2 ml bupivacaine and 50 microgram fentanyl, and a change from the lateral to the supine position. General anaesthesia was induced and CT and MRI scans were performed showing trapped air in the epidural space at the L4 level causing compression of the thecal sac. After excluding other causes, the spontaneous entry of air through the Tuohy needle was thought to be the most likely explanation for this complication. The patient recovered uneventfully.
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8/248. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in europe.

    BACKGROUND: Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis is thought to be caused by a solitary helminth migrating within the subretinal space. Laser photocoagulation of the located worm is the preferred mode of therapy. methods: We describe the clinical and electrophysiological features of a case of a 15-year-old Caucasian male with a longstanding diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN), in whom two worms were seen in the fundus examination. Focal photocoagulation of the worms was applied as treatment. RESULTS: No signs of inflammation could be seen after treatment. Three months later, the patient was doing well. Follow-up examination 4 years later revealed an unchanged fundus appearance in the affected eye, with no evidence of progression of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: If a worm is identified in DUSN, focal laser treatment of the located area is the treatment of choice, regardless of whether fundus changes suggest late stages of the disease. However, the eye of the patient should be thoroughly examined to rule out the presence of more than one worm that might cause the failure of therapy.
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keywords = space
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9/248. Bilateral acute spontaneous subdural hematoma. A case report.

    A patient is described, with a history of sudden headache and vomiting, without major neurological deficit. There was no history of trauma. The cause turned out to be an acute spontaneous bilateral subdural hematoma. Comparable cases in literature and the etiological possibilities are discussed.
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keywords = subdural
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10/248. peliosis hepatis with initial presentation as acute hepatic failure and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in children.

    peliosis hepatis, a condition characterized by the presence of blood-filled lacunar spaces in the liver, usually has a chronic presentation pattern and is mainly reported in adult patients in association with chronic wasting disorders and after administration of various drugs. The present report concerns two previously healthy young children in whom peliosis hepatis initially presented as acute hepatic failure and who had escherichia coli pyelonephritis. Both patients had active intraperitoneal hemorrhage from the peliotic liver lesions, and liver ultrasonography showed multiple hypoechoic areas of different sizes, which in this context should suggest the diagnosis. One child died from hypovolemic shock and the other recovered. This study indicates that acute peliosis hepatis can be a serious life-threatening disease in children.
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keywords = space
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