Cases reported "Acute Disease"

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1/39. Unusual presentation of solitary bone metastasis from breast carcinoma mimicking acute osteomyelitis of the left midtibial shaft.

    The authors report an unusual presentation of a solitary bone metastasis in the left midtibial shaft with no other skeletal involvement in a patient with breast carcinoma. The incidence of solitary bone metastasis below the knees is rare. Clinically, the lesion was tender when palpated. A bone scan revealed increased blood flow and blood pool activity, with intense midtibial bony uptake in delayed images. These findings are similar to those of acute osteomyelitis. biopsy revealed bony metastasis from the patient's breast carcinoma.
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2/39. Acute myelofibrosis: multifocal bone marrow infiltration detected by scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Acute myelofibrosis is a rare, malignant hematological disorder of unknown etiology with an inevitably fatal outcome. Here we present the study of a 63-year-old Caucasian man with acute onset of pancytopenia. Repeated bone marrow biopsies showed dense fibrosis and hypoplastic hematopoiesis raising various differential diagnoses of malignant and nonmalignant conditions. bone marrow scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed areas suggesting neoplastic infiltration, mainly in both femurs and tibias. Histological examination of a surgical biopsy of the left tibia revealed acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. As the patient refused polychemotherapy, therapy with interferon gamma was initiated but discontinued prematurely because of intolerable side effects. The presented case therefore suggests that the combination of bone marrow scintigraphy and MRI is a valuable diagnostic tool in patients presenting with myelofibrosis of unknown origin.
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3/39. Acute arterial thrombosis with antithrombin iii deficiency in nephrotic syndrome: report of a case.

    nephrotic syndrome frequently causes venous thromboembolic complications. Arterial thrombosis has rarely been reported and is mainly observed in children. Only six cases of lower extremity arterial thrombosis in adults have been reported in the literature. The outcome in these cases was unsatisfactory because of the high rates of limb loss and recurrence of thrombosis. We report successful treatment of a 39-year-old man who suffered from right lower extremity arterial thrombosis associated with decreased levels of serum antithrombin III. He was admitted to our hospital with severe pain in his right foot. No pulse was palpable in his right dorsalis pedis or posterior tibial arteries. His right foot was cold and mottled, with a reduced sensation and motor activity. The laboratory data revealed a serum total protein concentration of 3.9g/dl and an albumin concentration of 1.5 g/dl. The coagulation profile showed a fibrinogen level of 879 mg/dl and antithrombin III value of 9.5%. Right lower extremity arteriography showed a complete occlusion of the right deep femoral artery and popliteal artery, and a filling defect in the common femoral artery. An emergency thrombectomy was performed under general anesthesia. The patient was treated successfully, and surgical treatment was followed by anticoagulant therapy with 1,000 units of antithrombin III. A renal biopsy revealed histologic evidence of minimal change of glomerulonephritis. He was discharged 3 months later, and no recurrence of thrombosis has yet been observed.
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4/39. evoked potentials in acute head injured patients with MRI-detected intracerebral lesions.

    BACKGROUND: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows precise detection of intracranial lesions in head injured patients. We compared intracranial lesions detected in MRI to somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) concerning their prognostic value. methods: Thirty patients with traumatic brain injury and prolonged recovery were studied. Size, side and number of 474 intra- and extraparenchymal lesions as well as lesion localisation based on a specific anatomical classification were entered into a database (a total of 7080 data). In addition, we recorded median-nerve SEP (M-SEP), tibial nerve SEP (T-SEP) and BAEP in all of the patients. FINDINGS: M-SEP and Glasgow-Outcome-Score (GOS) one year after injury correlated significantly to patients with lesions in the brainstem (p<0.0001) and corpus callosum (p<0.001). Similar results were found for T-SEP (p<0.0001). All patients with bicortical loss of M-SEP had an unfavourable outcome (GOS 2). Among the analysis of lesion volume, only the volume of brainstem lesions correlated to GOS (p<0.001), but this was not found for callosal lesions. However, comparing the vegetative (GOS 2) to the non-vegetative group (GOS 3-5), for both callosal (p<0.02) and brainstem (p<0.005) lesions a significant correlation was found. INTERPRETATION: MRI does not improve the prognostic reliability of SEP in head injury but offers possibilities for clarifying electrophysiological and clinical pathologies. This explains that the volume of brainstem lesions, essentially influencing the clinical outcome, is strongly correlated to T-SEP and M-SEP. In contrast, callosal lesions did not show a clear relationship to outcome despite large callosal lesions (>4 ml) which tended to poor outcome. In conclusion, we suggest that MRI and SEP are supplementary to each other concerning prognostic evaluation.
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5/39. Four cases of tendinopathy in patients on statin therapy.

    During the last decade, statins have been widely prescribed as lipid-lowering drugs. Their overall safety profile is good. The main musculoskeletal side effects have consisted of muscle pain and weakness, peripheral neuropathy, and a few cases of drug-induced lupus. We report the first four cases of tendinopathy in patients receiving statin therapy. There were three men and one woman. The diagnoses were extensortenosynovitis at the hands (case 1), tenosynovitis of the tibialis anterior tendon (case 2), and Achilles tendinopathy (cases 3 and 4). Two patients were on simvastatin and two on atorvastatin. The tendinopathy developed 1 to 2 months after treatment initiation. The outcome was consistently favorable within 1 to 2 months after discontinuation of the drug. Similar cases have been reported to French pharmacovigilance centers. This report of four cases of tendinopathy draws attention to a possible and heretofore unrecognized side effect of a drug class that is becoming increasingly popular. Statins are effective in lowering high cholesterol levels in patients with type IIa or IIb hypercholesterolemia. They have been widely used for the last decade, particularly in the secondary and primary prevention of major coronary events. Statins act by inhibiting the enzyme hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme a (HMG-CoA) reductase. Although most patients tolerate statins extremely well, a few experience side effects requiring treatment discontinuation. Reported musculoskeletal side effects include myalgia and a few cases of rhabdomyolysis and polymyositis. Induced lupus and peripheral neuropathy are exceedingly rare.
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keywords = tibia
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6/39. Acute tarsal tunnel syndrome following partial avulsion of the flexor hallucis longus muscle: a case report.

    An acute posterior tibial nerve compression from a partially ruptured flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle is reported. This etiology for acute tarsal tunnel syndrome has not been previously described. A 17-year-old male sustained multiple injuries in a motor vehicle accident, including a tibial shaft fracture and a posterior medial right ankle laceration of the same limb. The injured limb had no sensation on the plantar aspect of the foot and heel, decreased active great toe flexion, and associated leg pain. Exploration of the posterior tibial nerve for presumed laceration revealed the nerve to be intact, but compressed in a tense tarsal tunnel from a retracted partially ruptured flexor hallucis longus tendon. decompression of the tunnel and resection of the devascularized muscle resulted in complete neurologic recovery.
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7/39. Acute exertional compartment syndrome in the setting of anabolic steroids: an unusual cause of bilateral footdrop.

    Acute exertional compartment syndrome is the result of muscle ischemia within a tight fascial compartment. We report a 22-year-old boxer, with recent intake of anabolic steroids, who developed acute exertional compartment syndrome of the lower legs following an assault from which he had to run away. He presented with bilateral footdrop. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG) were consistent with bilateral deep and superficial peroneal neuropathies, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated hemorrhagic necrosis of the pretibial muscles. This case illustrates that the differential diagnosis for footdrop includes not only central and peripheral nervous system and muscle causes, but also compartment syndromes.
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keywords = tibia
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8/39. Acute transient cerebral toxicity associated with administration of high-dose methotrexate.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the first case of transient central nervous system toxicity after administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) in the middle east. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with osteosarcoma of the proximal end of the left tibia. He underwent primary amputation and was started on adjuvant chemotherapy, which included administration of HDMTX. He developed acute cerebral toxicity after the 5th dose of HDMTX in the form of diplopia, seizures and disorientation. He recovered completely without any complication or neurological sequelae. CONCLUSION: The acute cerebral toxicity associated with HDMTX was completely reversible and without any sequelae.
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keywords = tibia
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9/39. Acute septal panniculitis. A cutaneous marker of a very early stage of pancreatic panniculitis indicating acute pancreatitis.

    CONTEXT: pancreatitis may occasionally be complicated by panniculitis as a result of the release of pancreatic enzymes. Pancreatic panniculitis is rare, occurring in 2-3% of all patients with pancreatic disorders, with a higher incidence among alcoholic males. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old male was admitted to our Department with acute abdominal pain one day following alcohol consumption. On physical examination, tender erythematous plaques and nodules were present on the left ankle and the pretibial regions of both lower legs, a clinical sign of panniculitis indicating acute pancreatitis common in alcoholic patients. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a diffusely edematous pancreas suggestive of acute pancreatitis. Abdominal contrast enhanced computerized tomography revealed features suggestive of severe acute pancreatitis with pancreatic necrosis. A skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of septal panniculitis without vasculitis or fat necrosis, which is indicative of a very early stage of pancreatic panniculitis suggesting acute alcoholic pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Septal panniculitis without vasculitis or fat necrosis is a cutaneous clinical marker which denotes a very early stage of pancreatic panniculitis associated with acute alcoholic pancreatitis. The treatment of pancreatic panniculitis is primarily supportive and depends on the underlying pancreatic pathology which may include surgery or endoscopic management.
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keywords = tibia
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10/39. Acute compartment syndrome following intramedullary pulse lavage and debridement for osteomyelitis of the tibia.

    The implantation of gentamicin loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beats and other local antibiotic carriers is a common practice in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis as is the use of local jet lavage debridement. This article presents the case of a patient with chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia, who had no complication after debridement, intramedullary reaming and pulse lavage without tourniquet but sustained a compartment syndrome 2 weeks later during a second procedure in which an intraoperative tourniquet and pulse lavage were combined.
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